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Yilun Zhao

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ML-Bench: Large Language Models Leverage Open-source Libraries for Machine Learning Tasks

Nov 16, 2023
Yuliang Liu, Xiangru Tang, Zefan Cai, Junjie Lu, Yichi Zhang, Yanjun Shao, Zexuan Deng, Helan Hu, Zengxian Yang, Kaikai An, Ruijun Huang, Shuzheng Si, Sheng Chen, Haozhe Zhao, Zhengliang Li, Liang Chen, Yiming Zong, Yan Wang, Tianyu Liu, Zhiwei Jiang, Baobao Chang, Yujia Qin, Wangchunshu Zhou, Yilun Zhao, Arman Cohan, Mark Gerstein

Large language models have shown promising performance in code generation benchmarks. However, a considerable divide exists between these benchmark achievements and their practical applicability, primarily attributed to real-world programming's reliance on pre-existing libraries. Instead of evaluating LLMs to code from scratch, this work aims to propose a new evaluation setup where LLMs use open-source libraries to finish machine learning tasks. Therefore, we propose ML-Bench, an expansive benchmark developed to assess the effectiveness of LLMs in leveraging existing functions in open-source libraries. Consisting of 10044 samples spanning 130 tasks over 14 notable machine learning GitHub repositories. In this setting, given a specific machine learning task instruction and the accompanying README in a codebase, an LLM is tasked to generate code to accomplish the task. This necessitates the comprehension of long and language-code interleaved documents, as well as the understanding of complex cross-file code structures, introducing new challenges. Notably, while GPT-4 exhibits remarkable improvement over other LLMs, it manages to accomplish only 39.73\% of the tasks, leaving a huge space for improvement. We address these challenges by proposing ML-Agent, designed to effectively navigate the codebase, locate documentation, retrieve code, and generate executable code. Empirical results demonstrate that ML-Agent, built upon GPT-4, results in further improvements. Code, data, and models are available at \url{}.

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MedAgents: Large Language Models as Collaborators for Zero-shot Medical Reasoning

Nov 16, 2023
Xiangru Tang, Anni Zou, Zhuosheng Zhang, Yilun Zhao, Xingyao Zhang, Arman Cohan, Mark Gerstein

Large Language Models (LLMs), despite their remarkable progress across various general domains, encounter significant barriers in medicine and healthcare. This field faces unique challenges such as domain-specific terminologies and the reasoning over specialized knowledge. To address these obstinate issues, we propose a novel Multi-disciplinary Collaboration (MC) framework for the medical domain that leverages role-playing LLM-based agents who participate in a collaborative multi-round discussion, thereby enhancing LLM proficiency and reasoning capabilities. This training-free and interpretable framework encompasses five critical steps: gathering domain experts, proposing individual analyses, summarising these analyses into a report, iterating over discussions until a consensus is reached, and ultimately making a decision. Our work particularly focuses on the zero-shot scenario, our results on nine data sets (MedQA, MedMCQA, PubMedQA, and six subtasks from MMLU) establish that our proposed MC framework excels at mining and harnessing the medical expertise in LLMs, as well as extending its reasoning abilities. Based on these outcomes, we further conduct a human evaluation to pinpoint and categorize common errors within our method, as well as ablation studies aimed at understanding the impact of various factors on overall performance. Our code can be found at \url{}.

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DocMath-Eval: Evaluating Numerical Reasoning Capabilities of LLMs in Understanding Long Documents with Tabular Data

Nov 16, 2023
Yilun Zhao, Yitao Long, Hongjun Liu, Linyong Nan, Lyuhao Chen, Ryo Kamoi, Yixin Liu, Xiangru Tang, Rui Zhang, Arman Cohan

Recent LLMs have demonstrated remarkable performance in solving exam-like math word problems. However, the degree to which these numerical reasoning skills are effective in real-world scenarios, particularly in expert domains, is still largely unexplored. This paper introduces DocMath-Eval, a comprehensive benchmark specifically designed to evaluate the numerical reasoning and problem-solving capabilities of LLMs in the context of understanding and analyzing financial documents containing both text and tables. We evaluate a wide spectrum of 19 LLMs, including those specialized in coding and finance. We also incorporate different prompting strategies (i.e., Chain-of-Thoughts and Program-of-Thoughts) to comprehensively assess the capabilities and limitations of existing LLMs in DocMath-Eval. We found that, although the current best-performing system (i.e., GPT-4), can perform well on simple problems such as calculating the rate of increase in a financial metric within a short document context, it significantly lags behind human experts in more complex problems grounded in longer contexts. We believe DocMath-Eval can be used as a valuable benchmark to evaluate LLMs' capabilities to solve challenging numerical reasoning problems in expert domains. We will release the benchmark and code at

* work in progress 
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KnowledgeMath: Knowledge-Intensive Math Word Problem Solving in Finance Domains

Nov 16, 2023
Yilun Zhao, Hongjun Liu, Yitao Long, Rui Zhang, Chen Zhao, Arman Cohan

We introduce KnowledgeMath, a novel benchmark designed to evaluate LLMs' capabilities in applying financial knowledge to solve complex math word problems. Compared to prior works, this study features three core advancements. First, KnowledgeMath includes 1,259 problems with a hybrid of textual and tabular content and require college-level knowledge in the finance domain for effective resolution. Second, we provide expert-annotated, detailed solution references in Python program format, ensuring a high-quality benchmark for LLM assessment. Finally, we evaluate a wide spectrum of 14 LLMs with different prompting strategies like Chain-of-Thoughts and Program-of-Thoughts. The current best-performing system (i.e., GPT-4 with Program-of-Thoughts) achieves only 45.4% accuracy, leaving substantial room for improvement. While knowledge-augmented LLMs can improve the performance (e.g., from 23.9% to 32.0% for GPT-3.5), it is still significantly lower the estimated human expert performance of 94%. We believe that KnowledgeMath can facilitate future research on domain-specific knowledge retrieval and augmentation into the math word problem-solving process. We will release the benchmark and code at

* work in progress 
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Investigating Data Contamination in Modern Benchmarks for Large Language Models

Nov 16, 2023
Chunyuan Deng, Yilun Zhao, Xiangru Tang, Mark Gerstein, Arman Cohan

Recent observations have underscored a disparity between the inflated benchmark scores and the actual performance of LLMs, raising concerns about potential contamination of evaluation benchmarks. This issue is especially critical for closed-source models and certain open-source models where training data transparency is lacking. In this paper we study data contamination by proposing two methods tailored for both open-source and proprietary LLMs. We first introduce a retrieval-based system to explore potential overlaps between evaluation benchmarks and pretraining corpora. We further present a novel investigation protocol named \textbf{T}estset \textbf{S}lot Guessing (\textit{TS-Guessing}), applicable to both open and proprietary models. This approach entails masking a wrong answer in a multiple-choice question and prompting the model to fill in the gap. Additionally, it involves obscuring an unlikely word in an evaluation example and asking the model to produce it. We find that certain commercial LLMs could surprisingly guess the missing option in various test sets. Specifically, in the TruthfulQA benchmark, we find that LLMs exhibit notable performance improvement when provided with additional metadata in the benchmark. Further, in the MMLU benchmark, ChatGPT and GPT-4 demonstrated an exact match rate of 52\% and 57\%, respectively, in guessing the missing options in benchmark test data. We hope these results underscore the need for more robust evaluation methodologies and benchmarks in the field.

* Preprint Version 
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On Evaluating the Integration of Reasoning and Action in LLM Agents with Database Question Answering

Nov 16, 2023
Linyong Nan, Ellen Zhang, Weijin Zou, Yilun Zhao, Wenfei Zhou, Arman Cohan

This study introduces a new long-form database question answering dataset designed to evaluate how Large Language Models (LLMs) interact with a SQL interpreter. The task necessitates LLMs to strategically generate multiple SQL queries to retrieve sufficient data from a database, to reason with the acquired context, and to synthesize them into a comprehensive analytical narrative. Our findings highlight that this task poses great challenges even for the state-of-the-art GPT-4 model. We propose and evaluate two interaction strategies, and provide a fine-grained analysis of the individual stages within the interaction. A key discovery is the identification of two primary bottlenecks hindering effective interaction: the capacity for planning and the ability to generate multiple SQL queries. To address the challenge of accurately assessing answer quality, we introduce a multi-agent evaluation framework that simulates the academic peer-review process, enhancing the precision and reliability of our evaluations. This framework allows for a more nuanced understanding of the strengths and limitations of current LLMs in complex retrieval and reasoning tasks.

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Benchmarking Generation and Evaluation Capabilities of Large Language Models for Instruction Controllable Summarization

Nov 15, 2023
Yixin Liu, Alexander R. Fabbri, Jiawen Chen, Yilun Zhao, Simeng Han, Shafiq Joty, Pengfei Liu, Dragomir Radev, Chien-Sheng Wu, Arman Cohan

While large language models (LLMs) already achieve strong performance on standard generic summarization benchmarks, their performance on more complex summarization task settings is less studied. Therefore, we benchmark LLMs on instruction controllable text summarization, where the model input consists of both a source article and a natural language requirement for the desired summary characteristics. To this end, we curate an evaluation-only dataset for this task setting and conduct human evaluation on 5 LLM-based summarization systems. We then benchmark LLM-based automatic evaluation for this task with 4 different evaluation protocols and 11 LLMs, resulting in 40 evaluation methods in total. Our study reveals that instruction controllable text summarization remains a challenging task for LLMs, since (1) all LLMs evaluated still make factual and other types of errors in their summaries; (2) all LLM-based evaluation methods cannot achieve a strong alignment with human annotators when judging the quality of candidate summaries; (3) different LLMs show large performance gaps in summary generation and evaluation. We make our collected benchmark, InstruSum, publicly available to facilitate future research in this direction.

* GitHub Repo: 
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L2CEval: Evaluating Language-to-Code Generation Capabilities of Large Language Models

Oct 02, 2023
Ansong Ni, Pengcheng Yin, Yilun Zhao, Martin Riddell, Troy Feng, Rui Shen, Stephen Yin, Ye Liu, Semih Yavuz, Caiming Xiong, Shafiq Joty, Yingbo Zhou, Dragomir Radev, Arman Cohan

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Recently, large language models (LLMs), especially those that are pretrained on code, have demonstrated strong capabilities in generating programs from natural language inputs in a few-shot or even zero-shot manner. Despite promising results, there is a notable lack of a comprehensive evaluation of these models language-to-code generation capabilities. Existing studies often focus on specific tasks, model architectures, or learning paradigms, leading to a fragmented understanding of the overall landscape. In this work, we present L2CEval, a systematic evaluation of the language-to-code generation capabilities of LLMs on 7 tasks across the domain spectrum of semantic parsing, math reasoning and Python programming, analyzing the factors that potentially affect their performance, such as model size, pretraining data, instruction tuning, and different prompting methods. In addition to assessing model performance, we measure confidence calibration for the models and conduct human evaluations of the output programs. This enables us to identify and analyze the typical failure modes across various tasks and models. L2CEval offers a comprehensive understanding of the capabilities and limitations of LLMs in language-to-code generation. We also release the evaluation framework and all model outputs, hoping to lay the groundwork for further future research in this domain.

* Project Website: 
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Struc-Bench: Are Large Language Models Really Good at Generating Complex Structured Data?

Sep 19, 2023
Xiangru Tang, Yiming Zong, Jason Phang, Yilun Zhao, Wangchunshu Zhou, Arman Cohan, Mark Gerstein

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Despite the power of Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-4, they still struggle with tasks that require generating complex, structured outputs. In this study, we assess the capability of Current LLMs in generating complex structured data and propose a structure-aware fine-tuning approach as a solution to improve this ability. To perform a comprehensive evaluation, we propose Struc-Bench, include five representative LLMs (i.e., GPT-NeoX 20B, GPT-3.5, GPT-4, and Vicuna) and evaluate them on our carefully constructed datasets spanning raw text, HTML, and LaTeX tables. Based on our analysis of current model performance, we identify specific common formatting errors and areas of potential improvement. To address complex formatting requirements, we utilize FormatCoT (Chain-of-Thought) to generate format instructions from target outputs. Our experiments show that our structure-aware fine-tuning method, when applied to LLaMA-7B, significantly improves adherence to natural language constraints, outperforming other evaluated LLMs. Based on these results, we present an ability map of model capabilities from six dimensions (i.e., coverage, formatting, reasoning, comprehension, pragmatics, and hallucination). This map highlights the weaknesses of LLMs in handling complex structured outputs and suggests promising directions for future work. Our code and models can be found at

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ODSum: New Benchmarks for Open Domain Multi-Document Summarization

Sep 16, 2023
Yijie Zhou, Kejian Shi, Wencai Zhang, Yixin Liu, Yilun Zhao, Arman Cohan

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Open-domain Multi-Document Summarization (ODMDS) is a critical tool for condensing vast arrays of documents into coherent, concise summaries. With a more inter-related document set, there does not necessarily exist a correct answer for the retrieval, making it hard to measure the retrieving performance. We propose a rule-based method to process query-based document summarization datasets into ODMDS datasets. Based on this method, we introduce a novel dataset, ODSum, a sophisticated case with its document index interdependent and often interrelated. We tackle ODMDS with the \textit{retrieve-then-summarize} method, and the performance of a list of retrievers and summarizers is investigated. Through extensive experiments, we identify variances in evaluation metrics and provide insights into their reliability. We also found that LLMs suffer great performance loss from retrieving errors. We further experimented methods to improve the performance as well as investigate their robustness against imperfect retrieval. We will release our data and code at

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