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Li Zhang

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One Size Does Not Fit All: Customizing Open-Domain Procedures

Nov 16, 2023
Yash Kumar Lal, Li Zhang, Faeze Brahman, Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder, Peter Clark, Niket Tandon

How-to procedures, such as how to plant a garden, are ubiquitous. But one size does not fit all - humans often need to customize these procedural plans according to their specific needs, e.g., planting a garden without pesticides. While LLMs can fluently generate generic procedures, we present the first study on how well LLMs can customize open-domain procedures. We introduce CustomPlans, a probe dataset of customization hints that encodes diverse user needs for open-domain How-to procedures. Using LLMs as CustomizationAgent and ExecutionAgent in different settings, we establish their abilities to perform open-domain procedure customization. Human evaluation shows that using these agents in a Sequential setting is the best, but they are good enough only ~51% of the time. Error analysis shows that LLMs do not sufficiently address user customization needs in their generated procedures.

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Improved Dense Nested Attention Network Based on Transformer for Infrared Small Target Detection

Nov 15, 2023
Chun Bao, Jie Cao, Yaqian Ning, Tianhua Zhao, Zhijun Li, Zechen Wang, Li Zhang, Qun Hao

Infrared small target detection based on deep learning offers unique advantages in separating small targets from complex and dynamic backgrounds. However, the features of infrared small targets gradually weaken as the depth of convolutional neural network (CNN) increases. To address this issue, we propose a novel method for detecting infrared small targets called improved dense nested attention network (IDNANet), which is based on the transformer architecture. We preserve the dense nested structure of dense nested attention network (DNANet) and introduce the Swin-transformer during feature extraction stage to enhance the continuity of features. Furthermore, we integrate the ACmix attention structure into the dense nested structure to enhance the features of intermediate layers. Additionally, we design a weighted dice binary cross-entropy (WD-BCE) loss function to mitigate the negative impact of foreground-background imbalance in the samples. Moreover, we develop a dataset specifically for infrared small targets, called BIT-SIRST. The dataset comprises a significant amount of real-world targets and manually annotated labels, as well as synthetic data and corresponding labels. We have evaluated the effectiveness of our method through experiments conducted on public datasets. In comparison to other state-of-the-art methods, our approach outperforms in terms of probability of detection (P_d), false-alarm rate (F_a), and mean intersection of union ($mIoU$). The $mIoU$ reaches 90.89 on the NUDT-SIRST dataset and 79.72 on the NUAA-SIRST dataset.

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Consistent4D: Consistent 360° Dynamic Object Generation from Monocular Video

Nov 06, 2023
Yanqin Jiang, Li Zhang, Jin Gao, Weimin Hu, Yao Yao

In this paper, we present Consistent4D, a novel approach for generating 4D dynamic objects from uncalibrated monocular videos. Uniquely, we cast the 360-degree dynamic object reconstruction as a 4D generation problem, eliminating the need for tedious multi-view data collection and camera calibration. This is achieved by leveraging the object-level 3D-aware image diffusion model as the primary supervision signal for training Dynamic Neural Radiance Fields (DyNeRF). Specifically, we propose a Cascade DyNeRF to facilitate stable convergence and temporal continuity under the supervision signal which is discrete along the time axis. To achieve spatial and temporal consistency, we further introduce an Interpolation-driven Consistency Loss. It is optimized by minimizing the discrepancy between rendered frames from DyNeRF and interpolated frames from a pre-trained video interpolation model. Extensive experiments show that our Consistent4D can perform competitively to prior art alternatives, opening up new possibilities for 4D dynamic object generation from monocular videos, whilst also demonstrating advantage for conventional text-to-3D generation tasks. Our project page is

* Technique report. Project page: 
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Large Language Models Illuminate a Progressive Pathway to Artificial Healthcare Assistant: A Review

Nov 03, 2023
Mingze Yuan, Peng Bao, Jiajia Yuan, Yunhao Shen, Zifan Chen, Yi Xie, Jie Zhao, Yang Chen, Li Zhang, Lin Shen, Bin Dong

With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, large language models (LLMs) have shown promising capabilities in mimicking human-level language comprehension and reasoning. This has sparked significant interest in applying LLMs to enhance various aspects of healthcare, ranging from medical education to clinical decision support. However, medicine involves multifaceted data modalities and nuanced reasoning skills, presenting challenges for integrating LLMs. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the applications and implications of LLMs in medicine. It begins by examining the fundamental applications of general-purpose and specialized LLMs, demonstrating their utilities in knowledge retrieval, research support, clinical workflow automation, and diagnostic assistance. Recognizing the inherent multimodality of medicine, the review then focuses on multimodal LLMs, investigating their ability to process diverse data types like medical imaging and EHRs to augment diagnostic accuracy. To address LLMs' limitations regarding personalization and complex clinical reasoning, the paper explores the emerging development of LLM-powered autonomous agents for healthcare. Furthermore, it summarizes the evaluation methodologies for assessing LLMs' reliability and safety in medical contexts. Overall, this review offers an extensive analysis on the transformative potential of LLMs in modern medicine. It also highlights the pivotal need for continuous optimizations and ethical oversight before these models can be effectively integrated into clinical practice. Visit for an accompanying GitHub repository containing latest papers.

* 24 pages, 1 figure, 3 tables 
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Private Learning with Public Features

Oct 24, 2023
Walid Krichene, Nicolas Mayoraz, Steffen Rendle, Shuang Song, Abhradeep Thakurta, Li Zhang

We study a class of private learning problems in which the data is a join of private and public features. This is often the case in private personalization tasks such as recommendation or ad prediction, in which features related to individuals are sensitive, while features related to items (the movies or songs to be recommended, or the ads to be shown to users) are publicly available and do not require protection. A natural question is whether private algorithms can achieve higher utility in the presence of public features. We give a positive answer for multi-encoder models where one of the encoders operates on public features. We develop new algorithms that take advantage of this separation by only protecting certain sufficient statistics (instead of adding noise to the gradient). This method has a guaranteed utility improvement for linear regression, and importantly, achieves the state of the art on two standard private recommendation benchmarks, demonstrating the importance of methods that adapt to the private-public feature separation.

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Enhancing High-Resolution 3D Generation through Pixel-wise Gradient Clipping

Oct 19, 2023
Zijie Pan, Jiachen Lu, Xiatian Zhu, Li Zhang

High-resolution 3D object generation remains a challenging task primarily due to the limited availability of comprehensive annotated training data. Recent advancements have aimed to overcome this constraint by harnessing image generative models, pretrained on extensive curated web datasets, using knowledge transfer techniques like Score Distillation Sampling (SDS). Efficiently addressing the requirements of high-resolution rendering often necessitates the adoption of latent representation-based models, such as the Latent Diffusion Model (LDM). In this framework, a significant challenge arises: To compute gradients for individual image pixels, it is necessary to backpropagate gradients from the designated latent space through the frozen components of the image model, such as the VAE encoder used within LDM. However, this gradient propagation pathway has never been optimized, remaining uncontrolled during training. We find that the unregulated gradients adversely affect the 3D model's capacity in acquiring texture-related information from the image generative model, leading to poor quality appearance synthesis. To address this overarching challenge, we propose an innovative operation termed Pixel-wise Gradient Clipping (PGC) designed for seamless integration into existing 3D generative models, thereby enhancing their synthesis quality. Specifically, we control the magnitude of stochastic gradients by clipping the pixel-wise gradients efficiently, while preserving crucial texture-related gradient directions. Despite this simplicity and minimal extra cost, extensive experiments demonstrate the efficacy of our PGC in enhancing the performance of existing 3D generative models for high-resolution object rendering.

* Technical Report 
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Real-time Photorealistic Dynamic Scene Representation and Rendering with 4D Gaussian Splatting

Oct 16, 2023
Zeyu Yang, Hongye Yang, Zijie Pan, Xiatian Zhu, Li Zhang

Reconstructing dynamic 3D scenes from 2D images and generating diverse views over time is challenging due to scene complexity and temporal dynamics. Despite advancements in neural implicit models, limitations persist: (i) Inadequate Scene Structure: Existing methods struggle to reveal the spatial and temporal structure of dynamic scenes from directly learning the complex 6D plenoptic function. (ii) Scaling Deformation Modeling: Explicitly modeling scene element deformation becomes impractical for complex dynamics. To address these issues, we consider the spacetime as an entirety and propose to approximate the underlying spatio-temporal 4D volume of a dynamic scene by optimizing a collection of 4D primitives, with explicit geometry and appearance modeling. Learning to optimize the 4D primitives enables us to synthesize novel views at any desired time with our tailored rendering routine. Our model is conceptually simple, consisting of a 4D Gaussian parameterized by anisotropic ellipses that can rotate arbitrarily in space and time, as well as view-dependent and time-evolved appearance represented by the coefficient of 4D spherindrical harmonics. This approach offers simplicity, flexibility for variable-length video and end-to-end training, and efficient real-time rendering, making it suitable for capturing complex dynamic scene motions. Experiments across various benchmarks, including monocular and multi-view scenarios, demonstrate our 4DGS model's superior visual quality and efficiency.

* Technical Report 
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CLIN: A Continually Learning Language Agent for Rapid Task Adaptation and Generalization

Oct 16, 2023
Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder, Bhavana Dalvi Mishra, Peter Jansen, Oyvind Tafjord, Niket Tandon, Li Zhang, Chris Callison-Burch, Peter Clark

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Language agents have shown some ability to interact with an external environment, e.g., a virtual world such as ScienceWorld, to perform complex tasks, e.g., growing a plant, without the startup costs of reinforcement learning. However, despite their zero-shot capabilities, these agents to date do not continually improve over time beyond performance refinement on a specific task. Here we present CLIN, the first language-based agent to achieve this, so that it continually improves over multiple trials, including when both the environment and task are varied, and without requiring parameter updates. Our approach is to use a persistent, dynamic, textual memory centered on causal abstractions (rather than general "helpful hints") that is regularly updated after each trial so that the agent gradually learns useful knowledge for new trials. In the ScienceWorld benchmark, CLIN is able to continually improve on repeated trials on the same task and environment, outperforming state-of-the-art reflective language agents like Reflexion by 23 absolute points. CLIN can also transfer its learning to new environments (or new tasks), improving its zero-shot performance by 4 points (13 for new tasks) and can further improve performance there through continual memory updates, enhancing performance by an additional 17 points (7 for new tasks). This suggests a new architecture for agents built on frozen models that can still continually and rapidly improve over time.

* Project page: 
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CBARF: Cascaded Bundle-Adjusting Neural Radiance Fields from Imperfect Camera Poses

Oct 15, 2023
Hongyu Fu, Xin Yu, Lincheng Li, Li Zhang

Existing volumetric neural rendering techniques, such as Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF), face limitations in synthesizing high-quality novel views when the camera poses of input images are imperfect. To address this issue, we propose a novel 3D reconstruction framework that enables simultaneous optimization of camera poses, dubbed CBARF (Cascaded Bundle-Adjusting NeRF).In a nutshell, our framework optimizes camera poses in a coarse-to-fine manner and then reconstructs scenes based on the rectified poses. It is observed that the initialization of camera poses has a significant impact on the performance of bundle-adjustment (BA). Therefore, we cascade multiple BA modules at different scales to progressively improve the camera poses. Meanwhile, we develop a neighbor-replacement strategy to further optimize the results of BA in each stage. In this step, we introduce a novel criterion to effectively identify poorly estimated camera poses. Then we replace them with the poses of neighboring cameras, thus further eliminating the impact of inaccurate camera poses. Once camera poses have been optimized, we employ a density voxel grid to generate high-quality 3D reconstructed scenes and images in novel views. Experimental results demonstrate that our CBARF model achieves state-of-the-art performance in both pose optimization and novel view synthesis, especially in the existence of large camera pose noise.

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Multi-Depth Branches Network for Efficient Image Super-Resolution

Sep 29, 2023
Huiyuan Tian, Li Zhang, Shijian Li, Min Yao, Gang Pan

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Significant progress has been made in the field of super-resolution (SR), yet many convolutional neural networks (CNNs) based SR models primarily focus on restoring high-frequency details, often overlooking crucial low-frequency contour information. Transformer-based SR methods, while incorporating global structural details, frequently come with an abundance of parameters, leading to high computational overhead. In this paper, we address these challenges by introducing a Multi-Depth Branches Network (MDBN). This framework extends the ResNet architecture by integrating an additional branch that captures vital structural characteristics of images. Our proposed multi-depth branches module (MDBM) involves the stacking of convolutional kernels of identical size at varying depths within distinct branches. By conducting a comprehensive analysis of the feature maps, we observe that branches with differing depths can extract contour and detail information respectively. By integrating these branches, the overall architecture can preserve essential low-frequency semantic structural information during the restoration of high-frequency visual elements, which is more closely with human visual cognition. Compared to GoogLeNet-like models, our basic multi-depth branches structure has fewer parameters, higher computational efficiency, and improved performance. Our model outperforms state-of-the-art (SOTA) lightweight SR methods with less inference time. Our code is available at

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