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Long Chen

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OpenStereo: A Comprehensive Benchmark for Stereo Matching and Strong Baseline

Dec 01, 2023
Xianda Guo, Juntao Lu, Chenming Zhang, Yiqi Wang, Yiqun Duan, Tian Yang, Zheng Zhu, Long Chen

Stereo matching, a pivotal technique in computer vision, plays a crucial role in robotics, autonomous navigation, and augmented reality. Despite the development of numerous impressive methods in recent years, replicating their results and determining the most suitable architecture for practical application remains challenging. Addressing this gap, our paper introduces a comprehensive benchmark focusing on practical applicability rather than solely on performance enhancement. Specifically, we develop a flexible and efficient stereo matching codebase, called OpenStereo. OpenStereo includes training and inference codes of more than 12 network models, making it, to our knowledge, the most complete stereo matching toolbox available. Based on OpenStereo, we conducted experiments on the SceneFlow dataset and have achieved or surpassed the performance metrics reported in the original paper. Additionally, we conduct an in-depth revisitation of recent developments in stereo matching through ablative experiments. These investigations inspired the creation of StereoBase, a simple yet strong baseline model. Our extensive comparative analyses of StereoBase against numerous contemporary stereo matching methods on the SceneFlow dataset demonstrate its remarkably strong performance. The source code is available at

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Automatic Detection of Alzheimer's Disease with Multi-Modal Fusion of Clinical MRI Scans

Nov 30, 2023
Long Chen, Liben Chen, Binfeng Xu, Wenxin Zhang, Narges Razavian

The aging population of the U.S. drives the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease. Brookmeyer et al. forecasts approximately 15 million Americans will have either clinical AD or mild cognitive impairment by 2060. In response to this urgent call, methods for early detection of Alzheimer's disease have been developed for prevention and pre-treatment. Notably, literature on the application of deep learning in the automatic detection of the disease has been proliferating. This study builds upon previous literature and maintains a focus on leveraging multi-modal information to enhance automatic detection. We aim to predict the stage of the disease - Cognitively Normal (CN), Mildly Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD), based on two different types of brain MRI scans. We design an AlexNet-based deep learning model that learns the synergy of complementary information from both T1 and FLAIR MRI scans.

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DECap: Towards Generalized Explicit Caption Editing via Diffusion Mechanism

Nov 25, 2023
Zhen Wang, Jun Xiao, Tao Chen, Long Chen

Explicit Caption Editing (ECE) -- refining reference image captions through a sequence of explicit edit operations (e.g., KEEP, DETELE) -- has raised significant attention due to its explainable and human-like nature. After training with carefully designed reference and ground-truth caption pairs, state-of-the-art ECE models exhibit limited generalization ability beyond the original training data distribution, i.e., they are tailored to refine content details only in in-domain samples but fail to correct errors in out-of-domain samples. To this end, we propose a new Diffusion-based Explicit Caption editing method: DECap. Specifically, we reformulate the ECE task as a denoising process under the diffusion mechanism, and introduce innovative edit-based noising and denoising processes. Thanks to this design, the noising process can help to eliminate the need for meticulous paired data selection by directly introducing word-level noises for training, learning diverse distribution over input reference caption. The denoising process involves the explicit predictions of edit operations and corresponding content words, refining reference captions through iterative step-wise editing. To further efficiently implement our diffusion process and improve the inference speed, DECap discards the prevalent multi-stage design and directly generates edit operations and content words simultaneously. Extensive ablations have demonstrated the strong generalization ability of DECap in various scenarios. More interestingly, it even shows great potential in improving the quality and controllability of caption generation.

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Compositional Zero-shot Learning via Progressive Language-based Observations

Nov 23, 2023
Lin Li, Guikun Chen, Jun Xiao, Long Chen

Compositional zero-shot learning aims to recognize unseen state-object compositions by leveraging known primitives (state and object) during training. However, effectively modeling interactions between primitives and generalizing knowledge to novel compositions remains a perennial challenge. There are two key factors: object-conditioned and state-conditioned variance, i.e., the appearance of states (or objects) can vary significantly when combined with different objects (or states). For instance, the state "old" can signify a vintage design for a "car" or an advanced age for a "cat". In this paper, we argue that these variances can be mitigated by predicting composition categories based on pre-observed primitive. To this end, we propose Progressive Language-based Observations (PLO), which can dynamically determine a better observation order of primitives. These observations comprise a series of concepts or languages that allow the model to understand image content in a step-by-step manner. Specifically, PLO adopts pre-trained vision-language models (VLMs) to empower the model with observation capabilities. We further devise two variants: 1) PLO-VLM: a two-step method, where a pre-observing classifier dynamically determines the observation order of two primitives. 2) PLO-LLM: a multi-step scheme, which utilizes large language models (LLMs) to craft composition-specific prompts for step-by-step observing. Extensive ablations on three challenging datasets demonstrate the superiority of PLO compared with state-of-the-art methods, affirming its abilities in compositional recognition.

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Passive Human Sensing Enhanced by Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface: Opportunities and Challenges

Nov 14, 2023
Xinyu Li, Jian Wei You, Ze Gu, Qian Ma, Long Chen, Jingyuan Zhang, Shi Jin, Tie Jun Cui

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have flexible and exceptional performance in manipulating electromagnetic waves and customizing wireless channels. These capabilities enable them to provide a plethora of valuable activity-related information for promoting wireless human sensing. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of passive human sensing using radio frequency signals with the assistance of RISs. Specifically, we first introduce fundamental principles and physical platform of RISs. Subsequently, based on the specific applications, we categorize the state-of-the-art human sensing techniques into three types, including human imaging,localization, and activity recognition. Meanwhile, we would also investigate the benefits that RISs bring to these applications. Furthermore, we explore the application of RISs in human micro-motion sensing, and propose a vital signs monitoring system enhanced by RISs. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the promising potential of RISs in sensing vital signs for manipulating individuals. Finally, we discuss the technical challenges and opportunities in this field.

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Dataset Bias Mitigation in Multiple-Choice Visual Question Answering and Beyond

Oct 31, 2023
Zhecan Wang, Long Chen, Haoxuan You, Keyang Xu, Yicheng He, Wenhao Li, Noel Codella, Kai-Wei Chang, Shih-Fu Chang

Vision-language (VL) understanding tasks evaluate models' comprehension of complex visual scenes through multiple-choice questions. However, we have identified two dataset biases that models can exploit as shortcuts to resolve various VL tasks correctly without proper understanding. The first type of dataset bias is \emph{Unbalanced Matching} bias, where the correct answer overlaps the question and image more than the incorrect answers. The second type of dataset bias is \emph{Distractor Similarity} bias, where incorrect answers are overly dissimilar to the correct answer but significantly similar to other incorrect answers within the same sample. To address these dataset biases, we first propose Adversarial Data Synthesis (ADS) to generate synthetic training and debiased evaluation data. We then introduce Intra-sample Counterfactual Training (ICT) to assist models in utilizing the synthesized training data, particularly the counterfactual data, via focusing on intra-sample differentiation. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of ADS and ICT in consistently improving model performance across different benchmarks, even in domain-shifted scenarios.

* EMNLP 2023  
* EMNLP 2023 
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Video Referring Expression Comprehension via Transformer with Content-conditioned Query

Oct 25, 2023
Ji Jiang, Meng Cao, Tengtao Song, Long Chen, Yi Wang, Yuexian Zou

Video Referring Expression Comprehension (REC) aims to localize a target object in videos based on the queried natural language. Recent improvements in video REC have been made using Transformer-based methods with learnable queries. However, we contend that this naive query design is not ideal given the open-world nature of video REC brought by text supervision. With numerous potential semantic categories, relying on only a few slow-updated queries is insufficient to characterize them. Our solution to this problem is to create dynamic queries that are conditioned on both the input video and language to model the diverse objects referred to. Specifically, we place a fixed number of learnable bounding boxes throughout the frame and use corresponding region features to provide prior information. Also, we noticed that current query features overlook the importance of cross-modal alignment. To address this, we align specific phrases in the sentence with semantically relevant visual areas, annotating them in existing video datasets (VID-Sentence and VidSTG). By incorporating these two designs, our proposed model (called ConFormer) outperforms other models on widely benchmarked datasets. For example, in the testing split of VID-Sentence dataset, ConFormer achieves 8.75% absolute improvement on Accu.@0.6 compared to the previous state-of-the-art model.

* Accepted to ACM International Conference on Multimedia Workshop (ACM MM), 2023. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2210.02953 
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Driving with LLMs: Fusing Object-Level Vector Modality for Explainable Autonomous Driving

Oct 13, 2023
Long Chen, Oleg Sinavski, Jan Hünermann, Alice Karnsund, Andrew James Willmott, Danny Birch, Daniel Maund, Jamie Shotton

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Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown promise in the autonomous driving sector, particularly in generalization and interpretability. We introduce a unique object-level multimodal LLM architecture that merges vectorized numeric modalities with a pre-trained LLM to improve context understanding in driving situations. We also present a new dataset of 160k QA pairs derived from 10k driving scenarios, paired with high quality control commands collected with RL agent and question answer pairs generated by teacher LLM (GPT-3.5). A distinct pretraining strategy is devised to align numeric vector modalities with static LLM representations using vector captioning language data. We also introduce an evaluation metric for Driving QA and demonstrate our LLM-driver's proficiency in interpreting driving scenarios, answering questions, and decision-making. Our findings highlight the potential of LLM-based driving action generation in comparison to traditional behavioral cloning. We make our benchmark, datasets, and model available for further exploration.

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V2X-AHD:Vehicle-to-Everything Cooperation Perception via Asymmetric Heterogenous Distillation Network

Oct 10, 2023
Caizhen He, Hai Wang, Long Chen, Tong Luo, Yingfeng Cai

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Object detection is the central issue of intelligent traffic systems, and recent advancements in single-vehicle lidar-based 3D detection indicate that it can provide accurate position information for intelligent agents to make decisions and plan. Compared with single-vehicle perception, multi-view vehicle-road cooperation perception has fundamental advantages, such as the elimination of blind spots and a broader range of perception, and has become a research hotspot. However, the current perception of cooperation focuses on improving the complexity of fusion while ignoring the fundamental problems caused by the absence of single-view outlines. We propose a multi-view vehicle-road cooperation perception system, vehicle-to-everything cooperative perception (V2X-AHD), in order to enhance the identification capability, particularly for predicting the vehicle's shape. At first, we propose an asymmetric heterogeneous distillation network fed with different training data to improve the accuracy of contour recognition, with multi-view teacher features transferring to single-view student features. While the point cloud data are sparse, we propose Spara Pillar, a spare convolutional-based plug-in feature extraction backbone, to reduce the number of parameters and improve and enhance feature extraction capabilities. Moreover, we leverage the multi-head self-attention (MSA) to fuse the single-view feature, and the lightweight design makes the fusion feature a smooth expression. The results of applying our algorithm to the massive open dataset V2Xset demonstrate that our method achieves the state-of-the-art result. The V2X-AHD can effectively improve the accuracy of 3D object detection and reduce the number of network parameters, according to this study, which serves as a benchmark for cooperative perception. The code for this article is available at

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