As pretrained text-to-image diffusion models become increasingly powerful, recent efforts have been made to distill knowledge from these text-to-image pretrained models for optimizing a text-guided 3D model. Most of the existing methods generate a holistic 3D model from a plain text input. This can be problematic when the text describes a complex scene with multiple objects, because the vectorized text embeddings are inherently unable to capture a complex description with multiple entities and relationships. Holistic 3D modeling of the entire scene further prevents accurate grounding of text entities and concepts. To address this limitation, we propose GraphDreamer, a novel framework to generate compositional 3D scenes from scene graphs, where objects are represented as nodes and their interactions as edges. By exploiting node and edge information in scene graphs, our method makes better use of the pretrained text-to-image diffusion model and is able to fully disentangle different objects without image-level supervision. To facilitate modeling of object-wise relationships, we use signed distance fields as representation and impose a constraint to avoid inter-penetration of objects. To avoid manual scene graph creation, we design a text prompt for ChatGPT to generate scene graphs based on text inputs. We conduct both qualitative and quantitative experiments to validate the effectiveness of GraphDreamer in generating high-fidelity compositional 3D scenes with disentangled object entities.
Recently, 3D Gaussian Splatting has demonstrated impressive novel view synthesis results, reaching high fidelity and efficiency. However, strong artifacts can be observed when changing the sampling rate, \eg, by changing focal length or camera distance. We find that the source for this phenomenon can be attributed to the lack of 3D frequency constraints and the usage of a 2D dilation filter. To address this problem, we introduce a 3D smoothing filter which constrains the size of the 3D Gaussian primitives based on the maximal sampling frequency induced by the input views, eliminating high-frequency artifacts when zooming in. Moreover, replacing 2D dilation with a 2D Mip filter, which simulates a 2D box filter, effectively mitigates aliasing and dilation issues. Our evaluation, including scenarios such a training on single-scale images and testing on multiple scales, validates the effectiveness of our approach.
Modern learning-based approaches to 3D-aware image synthesis achieve high photorealism and 3D-consistent viewpoint changes for the generated images. Existing approaches represent instances in a shared canonical space. However, for in-the-wild datasets a shared canonical system can be difficult to define or might not even exist. In this work, we instead model instances in view space, alleviating the need for posed images and learned camera distributions. We find that in this setting, existing GAN-based methods are prone to generating flat geometry and struggle with distribution coverage. We hence propose WildFusion, a new approach to 3D-aware image synthesis based on latent diffusion models (LDMs). We first train an autoencoder that infers a compressed latent representation, which additionally captures the images' underlying 3D structure and enables not only reconstruction but also novel view synthesis. To learn a faithful 3D representation, we leverage cues from monocular depth prediction. Then, we train a diffusion model in the 3D-aware latent space, thereby enabling synthesis of high-quality 3D-consistent image samples, outperforming recent state-of-the-art GAN-based methods. Importantly, our 3D-aware LDM is trained without any direct supervision from multiview images or 3D geometry and does not require posed images or learned pose or camera distributions. It directly learns a 3D representation without relying on canonical camera coordinates. This opens up promising research avenues for scalable 3D-aware image synthesis and 3D content creation from in-the-wild image data. See https://katjaschwarz.github.io/wildfusion for videos of our 3D results.
As transformers are equivariant to the permutation of input tokens, encoding the positional information of tokens is necessary for many tasks. However, since existing positional encoding schemes have been initially designed for NLP tasks, their suitability for vision tasks, which typically exhibit different structural properties in their data, is questionable. We argue that existing positional encoding schemes are suboptimal for 3D vision tasks, as they do not respect their underlying 3D geometric structure. Based on this hypothesis, we propose a geometry-aware attention mechanism that encodes the geometric structure of tokens as relative transformation determined by the geometric relationship between queries and key-value pairs. By evaluating on multiple novel view synthesis (NVS) datasets in the sparse wide-baseline multi-view setting, we show that our attention, called Geometric Transform Attention (GTA), improves learning efficiency and performance of state-of-the-art transformer-based NVS models without any additional learned parameters and only minor computational overhead.
Training perception systems for self-driving cars requires substantial annotations. However, manual labeling in 2D images is highly labor-intensive. While existing datasets provide rich annotations for pre-recorded sequences, they fall short in labeling rarely encountered viewpoints, potentially hampering the generalization ability for perception models. In this paper, we present PanopticNeRF-360, a novel approach that combines coarse 3D annotations with noisy 2D semantic cues to generate consistent panoptic labels and high-quality images from any viewpoint. Our key insight lies in exploiting the complementarity of 3D and 2D priors to mutually enhance geometry and semantics. Specifically, we propose to leverage noisy semantic and instance labels in both 3D and 2D spaces to guide geometry optimization. Simultaneously, the improved geometry assists in filtering noise present in the 3D and 2D annotations by merging them in 3D space via a learned semantic field. To further enhance appearance, we combine MLP and hash grids to yield hybrid scene features, striking a balance between high-frequency appearance and predominantly contiguous semantics. Our experiments demonstrate PanopticNeRF-360's state-of-the-art performance over existing label transfer methods on the challenging urban scenes of the KITTI-360 dataset. Moreover, PanopticNeRF-360 enables omnidirectional rendering of high-fidelity, multi-view and spatiotemporally consistent appearance, semantic and instance labels. We make our code and data available at https://github.com/fuxiao0719/PanopticNeRF
Prior work in 3D object detection evaluates models using offline metrics like average precision since closed-loop online evaluation on the downstream driving task is costly. However, it is unclear how indicative offline results are of driving performance. In this work, we perform the first empirical evaluation measuring how predictive different detection metrics are of driving performance when detectors are integrated into a full self-driving stack. We conduct extensive experiments on urban driving in the CARLA simulator using 16 object detection models. We find that the nuScenes Detection Score has a higher correlation to driving performance than the widely used average precision metric. In addition, our results call for caution on the exclusive reliance on the emerging class of `planner-centric' metrics.
The autonomous driving community has witnessed a rapid growth in approaches that embrace an end-to-end algorithm framework, utilizing raw sensor input to generate vehicle motion plans, instead of concentrating on individual tasks such as detection and motion prediction. End-to-end systems, in comparison to modular pipelines, benefit from joint feature optimization for perception and planning. This field has flourished due to the availability of large-scale datasets, closed-loop evaluation, and the increasing need for autonomous driving algorithms to perform effectively in challenging scenarios. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive analysis of more than 250 papers, covering the motivation, roadmap, methodology, challenges, and future trends in end-to-end autonomous driving. We delve into several critical challenges, including multi-modality, interpretability, causal confusion, robustness, and world models, amongst others. Additionally, we discuss current advancements in foundation models and visual pre-training, as well as how to incorporate these techniques within the end-to-end driving framework. To facilitate future research, we maintain an active repository that contains up-to-date links to relevant literature and open-source projects at https://github.com/OpenDriveLab/End-to-end-Autonomous-Driving.
The release of nuPlan marks a new era in vehicle motion planning research, offering the first large-scale real-world dataset and evaluation schemes requiring both precise short-term planning and long-horizon ego-forecasting. Existing systems struggle to simultaneously meet both requirements. Indeed, we find that these tasks are fundamentally misaligned and should be addressed independently. We further assess the current state of closed-loop planning in the field, revealing the limitations of learning-based methods in complex real-world scenarios and the value of simple rule-based priors such as centerline selection through lane graph search algorithms. More surprisingly, for the open-loop sub-task, we observe that the best results are achieved when using only this centerline as scene context (\ie, ignoring all information regarding the map and other agents). Combining these insights, we propose an extremely simple and efficient planner which outperforms an extensive set of competitors, winning the nuPlan planning challenge 2023.
End-to-end driving systems have recently made rapid progress, in particular on CARLA. Independent of their major contribution, they introduce changes to minor system components. Consequently, the source of improvements is unclear. We identify two biases that recur in nearly all state-of-the-art methods and are critical for the observed progress on CARLA: (1) lateral recovery via a strong inductive bias towards target point following, and (2) longitudinal averaging of multimodal waypoint predictions for slowing down. We investigate the drawbacks of these biases and identify principled alternatives. By incorporating our insights, we develop TF++, a simple end-to-end method that ranks first on the Longest6 and LAV benchmarks, gaining 14 driving score over the best prior work on Longest6.
In this paper, we propose a novel method for joint recovery of camera pose, object geometry and spatially-varying Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (svBRDF) of 3D scenes that exceed object-scale and hence cannot be captured with stationary light stages. The input are high-resolution RGB-D images captured by a mobile, hand-held capture system with point lights for active illumination. Compared to previous works that jointly estimate geometry and materials from a hand-held scanner, we formulate this problem using a single objective function that can be minimized using off-the-shelf gradient-based solvers. To facilitate scalability to large numbers of observation views and optimization variables, we introduce a distributed optimization algorithm that reconstructs 2.5D keyframe-based representations of the scene. A novel multi-view consistency regularizer effectively synchronizes neighboring keyframes such that the local optimization results allow for seamless integration into a globally consistent 3D model. We provide a study on the importance of each component in our formulation and show that our method compares favorably to baselines. We further demonstrate that our method accurately reconstructs various objects and materials and allows for expansion to spatially larger scenes. We believe that this work represents a significant step towards making geometry and material estimation from hand-held scanners scalable.