Rendering the visual appearance of moving humans from occluded monocular videos is a challenging task. Most existing research renders 3D humans under ideal conditions, requiring a clear and unobstructed scene. Those methods cannot be used to render humans in real-world scenes where obstacles may block the camera's view and lead to partial occlusions. In this work, we present Wild2Avatar, a neural rendering approach catered for occluded in-the-wild monocular videos. We propose occlusion-aware scene parameterization for decoupling the scene into three parts - occlusion, human, and background. Additionally, extensive objective functions are designed to help enforce the decoupling of the human from both the occlusion and the background and to ensure the completeness of the human model. We verify the effectiveness of our approach with experiments on in-the-wild videos.
3D understanding and rendering of moving humans from monocular videos is a challenging task. Despite recent progress, the task remains difficult in real-world scenarios, where obstacles may block the camera view and cause partial occlusions in the captured videos. Existing methods cannot handle such defects due to two reasons. First, the standard rendering strategy relies on point-point mapping, which could lead to dramatic disparities between the visible and occluded areas of the body. Second, the naive direct regression approach does not consider any feasibility criteria (ie, prior information) for rendering under occlusions. To tackle the above drawbacks, we present OccNeRF, a neural rendering method that achieves better rendering of humans in severely occluded scenes. As direct solutions to the two drawbacks, we propose surface-based rendering by integrating geometry and visibility priors. We validate our method on both simulated and real-world occlusions and demonstrate our method's superiority.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a common and life-saving medical imaging technique. However, acquiring high signal-to-noise ratio MRI scans requires long scan times, resulting in increased costs and patient discomfort, and decreased throughput. Thus, there is great interest in denoising MRI scans, especially for the subtype of diffusion MRI scans that are severely SNR-limited. While most prior MRI denoising methods are supervised in nature, acquiring supervised training datasets for the multitude of anatomies, MRI scanners, and scan parameters proves impractical. Here, we propose Denoising Diffusion Models for Denoising Diffusion MRI (DDM$^2$), a self-supervised denoising method for MRI denoising using diffusion denoising generative models. Our three-stage framework integrates statistic-based denoising theory into diffusion models and performs denoising through conditional generation. During inference, we represent input noisy measurements as a sample from an intermediate posterior distribution within the diffusion Markov chain. We conduct experiments on 4 real-world in-vivo diffusion MRI datasets and show that our DDM$^2$ demonstrates superior denoising performances ascertained with clinically-relevant visual qualitative and quantitative metrics.
Decoding visual stimuli from brain recordings aims to deepen our understanding of the human visual system and build a solid foundation for bridging human and computer vision through the Brain-Computer Interface. However, reconstructing high-quality images with correct semantics from brain recordings is a challenging problem due to the complex underlying representations of brain signals and the scarcity of data annotations. In this work, we present MinD-Vis: Sparse Masked Brain Modeling with Double-Conditioned Latent Diffusion Model for Human Vision Decoding. Firstly, we learn an effective self-supervised representation of fMRI data using mask modeling in a large latent space inspired by the sparse coding of information in the primary visual cortex. Then by augmenting a latent diffusion model with double-conditioning, we show that MinD-Vis can reconstruct highly plausible images with semantically matching details from brain recordings using very few paired annotations. We benchmarked our model qualitatively and quantitatively; the experimental results indicate that our method outperformed state-of-the-art in both semantic mapping (100-way semantic classification) and generation quality (FID) by 66% and 41% respectively. An exhaustive ablation study was also conducted to analyze our framework.
U-Net, as an encoder-decoder architecture with forward skip connections, has achieved promising results in various medical image analysis tasks. Many recent approaches have also extended U-Net with more complex building blocks, which typically increase the number of network parameters considerably. Such complexity makes the inference stage highly inefficient for clinical applications. Towards an effective yet economic segmentation network design, in this work, we propose backward skip connections that bring decoded features back to the encoder. Our design can be jointly adopted with forward skip connections in any encoder-decoder architecture forming a recurrence structure without introducing extra parameters. With the backward skip connections, we propose a U-Net based network family, namely Bi-directional O-shape networks, which set new benchmarks on multiple public medical imaging segmentation datasets. On the other hand, with the most plain architecture (BiO-Net), network computations inevitably increase along with the pre-set recurrence time. We have thus studied the deficiency bottleneck of such recurrent design and propose a novel two-phase Neural Architecture Search (NAS) algorithm, namely BiX-NAS, to search for the best multi-scale bi-directional skip connections. The ineffective skip connections are then discarded to reduce computational costs and speed up network inference. The finally searched BiX-Net yields the least network complexity and outperforms other state-of-the-art counterparts by large margins. We evaluate our methods on both 2D and 3D segmentation tasks in a total of six datasets. Extensive ablation studies have also been conducted to provide a comprehensive analysis for our proposed methods.
General point clouds have been increasingly investigated for different tasks, and recently Transformer-based networks are proposed for point cloud analysis. However, there are barely related works for medical point clouds, which are important for disease detection and treatment. In this work, we propose an attention-based model specifically for medical point clouds, namely 3D medical point Transformer (3DMedPT), to examine the complex biological structures. By augmenting contextual information and summarizing local responses at query, our attention module can capture both local context and global content feature interactions. However, the insufficient training samples of medical data may lead to poor feature learning, so we apply position embeddings to learn accurate local geometry and Multi-Graph Reasoning (MGR) to examine global knowledge propagation over channel graphs to enrich feature representations. Experiments conducted on IntrA dataset proves the superiority of 3DMedPT, where we achieve the best classification and segmentation results. Furthermore, the promising generalization ability of our method is validated on general 3D point cloud benchmarks: ModelNet40 and ShapeNetPart. Code is released.
We propose space-aware memory queues for in-painting and detecting anomalies from radiography images (abbreviated as SQUID). Radiography imaging protocols focus on particular body regions, therefore producing images of great similarity and yielding recurrent anatomical structures across patients. To exploit this structured information, our SQUID consists of a new Memory Queue and a novel in-painting block in the feature space. We show that SQUID can taxonomize the ingrained anatomical structures into recurrent patterns; and in the inference, SQUID can identify anomalies (unseen/modified patterns) in the image. SQUID surpasses the state of the art in unsupervised anomaly detection by over 5 points on two chest X-ray benchmark datasets. Additionally, we have created a new dataset (DigitAnatomy), which synthesizes the spatial correlation and consistent shape in chest anatomy. We hope DigitAnatomy can prompt the development, evaluation, and interpretability of anomaly detection methods, particularly for radiography imaging.