Large language models (LLMs), exemplified by ChatGPT, have gained considerable attention for their excellent natural language processing capabilities. Nonetheless, these LLMs present many challenges, particularly in the realm of trustworthiness. Therefore, ensuring the trustworthiness of LLMs emerges as an important topic. This paper introduces TrustLLM, a comprehensive study of trustworthiness in LLMs, including principles for different dimensions of trustworthiness, established benchmark, evaluation, and analysis of trustworthiness for mainstream LLMs, and discussion of open challenges and future directions. Specifically, we first propose a set of principles for trustworthy LLMs that span eight different dimensions. Based on these principles, we further establish a benchmark across six dimensions including truthfulness, safety, fairness, robustness, privacy, and machine ethics. We then present a study evaluating 16 mainstream LLMs in TrustLLM, consisting of over 30 datasets. Our findings firstly show that in general trustworthiness and utility (i.e., functional effectiveness) are positively related. Secondly, our observations reveal that proprietary LLMs generally outperform most open-source counterparts in terms of trustworthiness, raising concerns about the potential risks of widely accessible open-source LLMs. However, a few open-source LLMs come very close to proprietary ones. Thirdly, it is important to note that some LLMs may be overly calibrated towards exhibiting trustworthiness, to the extent that they compromise their utility by mistakenly treating benign prompts as harmful and consequently not responding. Finally, we emphasize the importance of ensuring transparency not only in the models themselves but also in the technologies that underpin trustworthiness. Knowing the specific trustworthy technologies that have been employed is crucial for analyzing their effectiveness.
* This work is still under work and we welcome your contribution
With the recent significant advancements in large multi-modal models (LMMs), the importance of their grounding capability in visual chat is increasingly recognized. Despite recent efforts to enable LMMs to support grounding, their capabilities for grounding and chat are usually separate, and their chat performance drops dramatically when asked to ground. The problem is the lack of a dataset for grounded visual chat (GVC). Existing grounding datasets only contain short captions. To address this issue, we have created GVC data that allows for the combination of grounding and chat capabilities. To better evaluate the GVC capabilities, we have introduced a benchmark called Grounding-Bench. Additionally, we have proposed a model design that can support GVC and various types of visual prompts by connecting segmentation models with language models. Experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms other LMMs on Grounding-Bench. Furthermore, our model achieves competitive performance on classic grounding benchmarks like RefCOCO/+/g and Flickr30K Entities. Our code will be released at https://github.com/UX-Decoder/LLaVA-Grounding .
In-context prompting in large language models (LLMs) has become a prevalent approach to improve zero-shot capabilities, but this idea is less explored in the vision domain. Existing visual prompting methods focus on referring segmentation to segment the most relevant object, falling short of addressing many generic vision tasks like open-set segmentation and detection. In this paper, we introduce a universal visual in-context prompting framework for both tasks. In particular, we build on top of an encoder-decoder architecture, and develop a versatile prompt encoder to support a variety of prompts like strokes, boxes, and points. We further enhance it to take an arbitrary number of reference image segments as the context. Our extensive explorations show that the proposed visual in-context prompting elicits extraordinary referring and generic segmentation capabilities to refer and detect, yielding competitive performance to close-set in-domain datasets and showing promising results on many open-set segmentation datasets. By joint training on COCO and SA-1B, our model achieves $57.7$ PQ on COCO and $23.2$ PQ on ADE20K. Code will be available at https://github.com/UX-Decoder/DINOv.
LLaVA-Plus is a general-purpose multimodal assistant that expands the capabilities of large multimodal models. It maintains a skill repository of pre-trained vision and vision-language models and can activate relevant tools based on users' inputs to fulfill real-world tasks. LLaVA-Plus is trained on multimodal instruction-following data to acquire the ability to use tools, covering visual understanding, generation, external knowledge retrieval, and compositions. Empirical results show that LLaVA-Plus outperforms LLaVA in existing capabilities and exhibits new ones. It is distinct in that the image query is directly grounded and actively engaged throughout the entire human-AI interaction sessions, significantly improving tool use performance and enabling new scenarios.
Due to deteriorating environmental conditions and increasing human activity, conservation efforts directed towards wildlife is crucial. Motion-activated camera traps constitute an efficient tool for tracking and monitoring wildlife populations across the globe. Supervised learning techniques have been successfully deployed to analyze such imagery, however training such techniques requires annotations from experts. Reducing the reliance on costly labelled data therefore has immense potential in developing large-scale wildlife tracking solutions with markedly less human labor. In this work we propose WildMatch, a novel zero-shot species classification framework that leverages multimodal foundation models. In particular, we instruction tune vision-language models to generate detailed visual descriptions of camera trap images using similar terminology to experts. Then, we match the generated caption to an external knowledge base of descriptions in order to determine the species in a zero-shot manner. We investigate techniques to build instruction tuning datasets for detailed animal description generation and propose a novel knowledge augmentation technique to enhance caption quality. We demonstrate the performance of WildMatch on a new camera trap dataset collected in the Magdalena Medio region of Colombia.
LLaVA-Interactive is a research prototype for multimodal human-AI interaction. The system can have multi-turn dialogues with human users by taking multimodal user inputs and generating multimodal responses. Importantly, LLaVA-Interactive goes beyond language prompt, where visual prompt is enabled to align human intents in the interaction. The development of LLaVA-Interactive is extremely cost-efficient as the system combines three multimodal skills of pre-built AI models without additional model training: visual chat of LLaVA, image segmentation from SEEM, as well as image generation and editing from GLIGEN. A diverse set of application scenarios is presented to demonstrate the promises of LLaVA-Interactive and to inspire future research in multimodal interactive systems.
Visual reasoning requires multimodal perception and commonsense cognition of the world. Recently, multiple vision-language models (VLMs) have been proposed with excellent commonsense reasoning ability in various domains. However, how to harness the collective power of these complementary VLMs is rarely explored. Existing methods like ensemble still struggle to aggregate these models with the desired higher-order communications. In this work, we propose Cola, a novel paradigm that coordinates multiple VLMs for visual reasoning. Our key insight is that a large language model (LLM) can efficiently coordinate multiple VLMs by facilitating natural language communication that leverages their distinct and complementary capabilities. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our instruction tuning variant, Cola-FT, achieves state-of-the-art performance on visual question answering (VQA), outside knowledge VQA, visual entailment, and visual spatial reasoning tasks. Moreover, we show that our in-context learning variant, Cola-Zero, exhibits competitive performance in zero and few-shot settings, without finetuning. Through systematic ablation studies and visualizations, we validate that a coordinator LLM indeed comprehends the instruction prompts as well as the separate functionalities of VLMs; it then coordinates them to enable impressive visual reasoning capabilities.
Rapid progress has been made in instruction-learning for image editing with natural-language instruction, as exemplified by InstructPix2Pix. In biomedicine, such methods can be applied to counterfactual image generation, which helps differentiate causal structure from spurious correlation and facilitate robust image interpretation for disease progression modeling. However, generic image-editing models are ill-suited for the biomedical domain, and counterfactual biomedical image generation is largely underexplored. In this paper, we present BiomedJourney, a novel method for counterfactual biomedical image generation by instruction-learning from multimodal patient journeys. Given a patient with two biomedical images taken at different time points, we use GPT-4 to process the corresponding imaging reports and generate a natural language description of disease progression. The resulting triples (prior image, progression description, new image) are then used to train a latent diffusion model for counterfactual biomedical image generation. Given the relative scarcity of image time series data, we introduce a two-stage curriculum that first pretrains the denoising network using the much more abundant single image-report pairs (with dummy prior image), and then continues training using the counterfactual triples. Experiments using the standard MIMIC-CXR dataset demonstrate the promise of our method. In a comprehensive battery of tests on counterfactual medical image generation, BiomedJourney substantially outperforms prior state-of-the-art methods in instruction image editing and medical image generation such as InstructPix2Pix and RoentGen. To facilitate future study in counterfactual medical generation, we plan to release our instruction-learning code and pretrained models.