In large-scale storehouses, precise instance masks are crucial for robotic bin picking but are challenging to obtain. Existing instance segmentation methods typically rely on a tedious process of scene collection, mask annotation, and network fine-tuning for every single Stock Keeping Unit (SKU). This paper presents SKU-Patch, a new patch-guided instance segmentation solution, leveraging only a few image patches for each incoming new SKU to predict accurate and robust masks, without tedious manual effort and model re-training. Technical-wise, we design a novel transformer-based network with (i) a patch-image correlation encoder to capture multi-level image features calibrated by patch information and (ii) a patch-aware transformer decoder with parallel task heads to generate instance masks. Extensive experiments on four storehouse benchmarks manifest that SKU-Patch is able to achieve the best performance over the state-of-the-art methods. Also, SKU-Patch yields an average of nearly 100% grasping success rate on more than 50 unseen SKUs in a robot-aided auto-store logistic pipeline, showing its effectiveness and practicality.
The Segment Anything Model (SAM), a foundation model for general image segmentation, has demonstrated impressive zero-shot performance across numerous natural image segmentation tasks. However, SAM's performance significantly declines when applied to medical images, primarily due to the substantial disparity between natural and medical image domains. To effectively adapt SAM to medical images, it is important to incorporate critical third-dimensional information, i.e., volumetric or temporal knowledge, during fine-tuning. Simultaneously, we aim to harness SAM's pre-trained weights within its original 2D backbone to the fullest extent. In this paper, we introduce a modality-agnostic SAM adaptation framework, named as MA-SAM, that is applicable to various volumetric and video medical data. Our method roots in the parameter-efficient fine-tuning strategy to update only a small portion of weight increments while preserving the majority of SAM's pre-trained weights. By injecting a series of 3D adapters into the transformer blocks of the image encoder, our method enables the pre-trained 2D backbone to extract third-dimensional information from input data. The effectiveness of our method has been comprehensively evaluated on four medical image segmentation tasks, by using 10 public datasets across CT, MRI, and surgical video data. Remarkably, without using any prompt, our method consistently outperforms various state-of-the-art 3D approaches, surpassing nnU-Net by 0.9%, 2.6%, and 9.9% in Dice for CT multi-organ segmentation, MRI prostate segmentation, and surgical scene segmentation respectively. Our model also demonstrates strong generalization, and excels in challenging tumor segmentation when prompts are used. Our code is available at: https://github.com/cchen-cc/MA-SAM.
We introduce Point-Bind, a 3D multi-modality model aligning point clouds with 2D image, language, audio, and video. Guided by ImageBind, we construct a joint embedding space between 3D and multi-modalities, enabling many promising applications, e.g., any-to-3D generation, 3D embedding arithmetic, and 3D open-world understanding. On top of this, we further present Point-LLM, the first 3D large language model (LLM) following 3D multi-modal instructions. By parameter-efficient fine-tuning techniques, Point-LLM injects the semantics of Point-Bind into pre-trained LLMs, e.g., LLaMA, which requires no 3D instruction data, but exhibits superior 3D and multi-modal question-answering capacity. We hope our work may cast a light on the community for extending 3D point clouds to multi-modality applications. Code is available at https://github.com/ZiyuGuo99/Point-Bind_Point-LLM.
Large-scale well-annotated datasets are of great importance for training an effective object detector. However, obtaining accurate bounding box annotations is laborious and demanding. Unfortunately, the resultant noisy bounding boxes could cause corrupt supervision signals and thus diminish detection performance. Motivated by the observation that the real ground-truth is usually situated in the aggregation region of the proposals assigned to a noisy ground-truth, we propose DIStribution-aware CalibratiOn (DISCO) to model the spatial distribution of proposals for calibrating supervision signals. In DISCO, spatial distribution modeling is performed to statistically extract the potential locations of objects. Based on the modeled distribution, three distribution-aware techniques, i.e., distribution-aware proposal augmentation (DA-Aug), distribution-aware box refinement (DA-Ref), and distribution-aware confidence estimation (DA-Est), are developed to improve classification, localization, and interpretability, respectively. Extensive experiments on large-scale noisy image datasets (i.e., Pascal VOC and MS-COCO) demonstrate that DISCO can achieve state-of-the-art detection performance, especially at high noise levels.
High-accuracy Dichotomous Image Segmentation (DIS) aims to pinpoint category-agnostic foreground objects from natural scenes. The main challenge for DIS involves identifying the highly accurate dominant area while rendering detailed object structure. However, directly using a general encoder-decoder architecture may result in an oversupply of high-level features and neglect the shallow spatial information necessary for partitioning meticulous structures. To fill this gap, we introduce a novel Unite-Divide-Unite Network (UDUN} that restructures and bipartitely arranges complementary features to simultaneously boost the effectiveness of trunk and structure identification. The proposed UDUN proceeds from several strengths. First, a dual-size input feeds into the shared backbone to produce more holistic and detailed features while keeping the model lightweight. Second, a simple Divide-and-Conquer Module (DCM) is proposed to decouple multiscale low- and high-level features into our structure decoder and trunk decoder to obtain structure and trunk information respectively. Moreover, we design a Trunk-Structure Aggregation module (TSA) in our union decoder that performs cascade integration for uniform high-accuracy segmentation. As a result, UDUN performs favorably against state-of-the-art competitors in all six evaluation metrics on overall DIS-TE, i.e., achieving 0.772 weighted F-measure and 977 HCE. Using 1024*1024 input, our model enables real-time inference at 65.3 fps with ResNet-18.
We propose a novel approach for RGB-D salient instance segmentation using a dual-branch cross-modal feature calibration architecture called CalibNet. Our method simultaneously calibrates depth and RGB features in the kernel and mask branches to generate instance-aware kernels and mask features. CalibNet consists of three simple modules, a dynamic interactive kernel (DIK) and a weight-sharing fusion (WSF), which work together to generate effective instance-aware kernels and integrate cross-modal features. To improve the quality of depth features, we incorporate a depth similarity assessment (DSA) module prior to DIK and WSF. In addition, we further contribute a new DSIS dataset, which contains 1,940 images with elaborate instance-level annotations. Extensive experiments on three challenging benchmarks show that CalibNet yields a promising result, i.e., 58.0% AP with 320*480 input size on the COME15K-N test set, which significantly surpasses the alternative frameworks. Our code and dataset are available at: https://github.com/PJLallen/CalibNet.
Robotic bin packing is very challenging, especially when considering practical needs such as object variety and packing compactness. This paper presents SDF-Pack, a new approach based on signed distance field (SDF) to model the geometric condition of objects in a container and compute the object placement locations and packing orders for achieving a more compact bin packing. Our method adopts a truncated SDF representation to localize the computation, and based on it, we formulate the SDF minimization heuristic to find optimized placements to compactly pack objects with the existing ones. To further improve space utilization, if the packing sequence is controllable, our method can suggest which object to be packed next. Experimental results on a large variety of everyday objects show that our method can consistently achieve higher packing compactness over 1,000 packing cases, enabling us to pack more objects into the container, compared with the existing heuristics under various packing settings.
Despite that the segment anything model (SAM) achieved impressive results on general-purpose semantic segmentation with strong generalization ability on daily images, its demonstrated performance on medical image segmentation is less precise and not stable, especially when dealing with tumor segmentation tasks that involve objects of small sizes, irregular shapes, and low contrast. Notably, the original SAM architecture is designed for 2D natural images, therefore would not be able to extract the 3D spatial information from volumetric medical data effectively. In this paper, we propose a novel adaptation method for transferring SAM from 2D to 3D for promptable medical image segmentation. Through a holistically designed scheme for architecture modification, we transfer the SAM to support volumetric inputs while retaining the majority of its pre-trained parameters for reuse. The fine-tuning process is conducted in a parameter-efficient manner, wherein most of the pre-trained parameters remain frozen, and only a few lightweight spatial adapters are introduced and tuned. Regardless of the domain gap between natural and medical data and the disparity in the spatial arrangement between 2D and 3D, the transformer trained on natural images can effectively capture the spatial patterns present in volumetric medical images with only lightweight adaptations. We conduct experiments on four open-source tumor segmentation datasets, and with a single click prompt, our model can outperform domain state-of-the-art medical image segmentation models on 3 out of 4 tasks, specifically by 8.25%, 29.87%, and 10.11% for kidney tumor, pancreas tumor, colon cancer segmentation, and achieve similar performance for liver tumor segmentation. We also compare our adaptation method with existing popular adapters, and observed significant performance improvement on most datasets.
Deep learning (DL)-based rib fracture detection has shown promise of playing an important role in preventing mortality and improving patient outcome. Normally, developing DL-based object detection models requires huge amount of bounding box annotation. However, annotating medical data is time-consuming and expertise-demanding, making obtaining a large amount of fine-grained annotations extremely infeasible. This poses pressing need of developing label-efficient detection models to alleviate radiologists' labeling burden. To tackle this challenge, the literature of object detection has witnessed an increase of weakly-supervised and semi-supervised approaches, yet still lacks a unified framework that leverages various forms of fully-labeled, weakly-labeled, and unlabeled data. In this paper, we present a novel omni-supervised object detection network, ORF-Netv2, to leverage as much available supervision as possible. Specifically, a multi-branch omni-supervised detection head is introduced with each branch trained with a specific type of supervision. A co-training-based dynamic label assignment strategy is then proposed to enable flexibly and robustly learning from the weakly-labeled and unlabeled data. Extensively evaluation was conducted for the proposed framework with three rib fracture datasets on both chest CT and X-ray. By leveraging all forms of supervision, ORF-Netv2 achieves mAPs of 34.7, 44.7, and 19.4 on the three datasets, respectively, surpassing the baseline detector which uses only box annotations by mAP gains of 3.8, 4.8, and 5.0, respectively. Furthermore, ORF-Netv2 consistently outperforms other competitive label-efficient methods over various scenarios, showing a promising framework for label-efficient fracture detection.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have shown remarkable progress in medical image segmentation. However, lesion segmentation remains a challenge to state-of-the-art CNN-based algorithms due to the variance in scales and shapes. On the one hand, tiny lesions are hard to be delineated precisely from the medical images which are often of low resolutions. On the other hand, segmenting large-size lesions requires large receptive fields, which exacerbates the first challenge. In this paper, we present a scale-aware super-resolution network to adaptively segment lesions of various sizes from the low-resolution medical images. Our proposed network contains dual branches to simultaneously conduct lesion mask super-resolution and lesion image super-resolution. The image super-resolution branch will provide more detailed features for the segmentation branch, i.e., the mask super-resolution branch, for fine-grained segmentation. Meanwhile, we introduce scale-aware dilated convolution blocks into the multi-task decoders to adaptively adjust the receptive fields of the convolutional kernels according to the lesion sizes. To guide the segmentation branch to learn from richer high-resolution features, we propose a feature affinity module and a scale affinity module to enhance the multi-task learning of the dual branches. On multiple challenging lesion segmentation datasets, our proposed network achieved consistent improvements compared to other state-of-the-art methods.