The millimeter wave (mmWave) has received considerable interest due to its expansive bandwidth and high frequency. However, a noteworthy challenge arises from its vulnerability to blockages, leading to reduced coverage and achievable rates. To address these limitations, a potential solution is to deploy distributed reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs), which comprise many low-cost and passively reflected elements, and can facilitate the establishment of extra communication links. In this paper, we leverage stochastic geometry to investigate the ergodic coverage probability and the achievable rate in both distributed RISs-assisted single-cell and multi-cell mmWave wireless communication systems. Specifically, we first establish the system model considering the stochastically distributed blockages, RISs and users by the Poisson point process. Then we give the association criterion and derive the association probabilities, the distance distributions, and the conditional coverage probabilities for two cases of associations between base stations and users without or with RISs. Finally, we use Campbell's theorem and the total probability theorem to obtain the closed-form expressions of the ergodic coverage probability and the achievable rate. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of our analysis method, and demonstrate that by deploying distributed RISs, the ergodic coverage probability is significantly improved by approximately 50%, and the achievable rate is increased by more than 1.5 times.
In millimeter-wave communications, large-scale antenna arrays are commonly employed to mitigate obstacle occlusion and path loss. However, these large-scale arrays generate pencil-shaped beams, which necessitate a higher number of training beams to cover the desired space. This results in the heavy beam training overhead. Furthermore, as the antenna aperture increases, users are more likely to be situated in the near-field region of the base station (BS) antenna array. This motivates our investigation into the beam training problem in the near-field region to achieve efficient beam alignment. To address the high complexity and low identification accuracy of existing beam training techniques, we propose an efficient hashing multi-arm beam (HMB) training scheme for the near-field scenario. Specifically, we first design a set of sparse bases based on the polar domain sparsity of the near-field channel and construct a near-field single-beam training codebook. Then, the hash functions are chosen to construct the near-field multi-arm beam training codebook. Each multi-arm beam training codeword is used in a time slot until the predefined codebook is traversed. Finally, the soft decision and voting methods are applied to distinguish the signal from different BS and obtain the correctly aligned beams. In addition, we provide the logically rigorous proof of computational complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed near-field HMB training method can achieve 96.4% identification accuracy of the exhaustive beam training method and greatly reduce the training overhead to the logarithmic level. Furthermore, we verify its applicability under the far-field scenario as well.
We introduce InternLM-XComposer2, a cutting-edge vision-language model excelling in free-form text-image composition and comprehension. This model goes beyond conventional vision-language understanding, adeptly crafting interleaved text-image content from diverse inputs like outlines, detailed textual specifications, and reference images, enabling highly customizable content creation. InternLM-XComposer2 proposes a Partial LoRA (PLoRA) approach that applies additional LoRA parameters exclusively to image tokens to preserve the integrity of pre-trained language knowledge, striking a balance between precise vision understanding and text composition with literary talent. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of InternLM-XComposer2 based on InternLM2-7B in producing high-quality long-text multi-modal content and its exceptional vision-language understanding performance across various benchmarks, where it not only significantly outperforms existing multimodal models but also matches or even surpasses GPT-4V and Gemini Pro in certain assessments. This highlights its remarkable proficiency in the realm of multimodal understanding. The InternLM-XComposer2 model series with 7B parameters are publicly available at https://github.com/InternLM/InternLM-XComposer.
Code large language models (Code LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable performance in code generation. Nonetheless, most existing works focus on boosting code LLMs from the perspective of programming capabilities, while their natural language capabilities receive less attention. To fill this gap, we thus propose a novel framework, comprising two modules: AttentionExtractor, which is responsible for extracting key phrases from the user's natural language requirements, and AttentionCoder, which leverages these extracted phrases to generate target code to solve the requirement. This framework pioneers an innovative idea by seamlessly integrating code LLMs with traditional natural language processing tools. To validate the effectiveness of the framework, we craft a new code generation benchmark, called MultiNL-H, covering five natural languages. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework.
Existing text-to-image diffusion models primarily generate images from text prompts. However, the inherent conciseness of textual descriptions poses challenges in faithfully synthesizing images with intricate details, such as specific entities or scenes. This paper presents UNIMO-G, a simple multimodal conditional diffusion framework that operates on multimodal prompts with interleaved textual and visual inputs, which demonstrates a unified ability for both text-driven and subject-driven image generation. UNIMO-G comprises two core components: a Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM) for encoding multimodal prompts, and a conditional denoising diffusion network for generating images based on the encoded multimodal input. We leverage a two-stage training strategy to effectively train the framework: firstly pre-training on large-scale text-image pairs to develop conditional image generation capabilities, and then instruction tuning with multimodal prompts to achieve unified image generation proficiency. A well-designed data processing pipeline involving language grounding and image segmentation is employed to construct multi-modal prompts. UNIMO-G excels in both text-to-image generation and zero-shot subject-driven synthesis, and is notably effective in generating high-fidelity images from complex multimodal prompts involving multiple image entities.
In this work, we address various segmentation tasks, each traditionally tackled by distinct or partially unified models. We propose OMG-Seg, One Model that is Good enough to efficiently and effectively handle all the segmentation tasks, including image semantic, instance, and panoptic segmentation, as well as their video counterparts, open vocabulary settings, prompt-driven, interactive segmentation like SAM, and video object segmentation. To our knowledge, this is the first model to handle all these tasks in one model and achieve satisfactory performance. We show that OMG-Seg, a transformer-based encoder-decoder architecture with task-specific queries and outputs, can support over ten distinct segmentation tasks and yet significantly reduce computational and parameter overhead across various tasks and datasets. We rigorously evaluate the inter-task influences and correlations during co-training. Code and models are available at https://github.com/lxtGH/OMG-Seg.
In vertical federated learning (VFL), commercial entities collaboratively train a model while preserving data privacy. However, a malicious participant's poisoning attack may degrade the performance of this collaborative model. The main challenge in achieving the poisoning attack is the absence of access to the server-side top model, leaving the malicious participant without a clear target model. To address this challenge, we introduce an innovative end-to-end poisoning framework P-GAN. Specifically, the malicious participant initially employs semi-supervised learning to train a surrogate target model. Subsequently, this participant employs a GAN-based method to produce adversarial perturbations to degrade the surrogate target model's performance. Finally, the generator is obtained and tailored for VFL poisoning. Besides, we develop an anomaly detection algorithm based on a deep auto-encoder (DAE), offering a robust defense mechanism to VFL scenarios. Through extensive experiments, we evaluate the efficacy of P-GAN and DAE, and further analyze the factors that influence their performance.
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Constrained multi-objective optimization problems (CMOPs) pervade real-world applications in science, engineering, and design. Constraint violation has been a building block in designing evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithms for solving constrained multi-objective optimization problems. However, in certain scenarios, constraint functions might be unknown or inadequately defined, making constraint violation unattainable and potentially misleading for conventional constrained evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithms. To address this issue, we present the first of its kind evolutionary optimization framework, inspired by the principles of the alternating direction method of multipliers that decouples objective and constraint functions. This framework tackles CMOPs with unknown constraints by reformulating the original problem into an additive form of two subproblems, each of which is allotted a dedicated evolutionary population. Notably, these two populations operate towards complementary evolutionary directions during their optimization processes. In order to minimize discrepancy, their evolutionary directions alternate, aiding the discovery of feasible solutions. Comparative experiments conducted against five state-of-the-art constrained evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithms, on 120 benchmark test problem instances with varying properties, as well as two real-world engineering optimization problems, demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed framework. Its salient features include faster convergence and enhanced resilience to various Pareto front shapes.
This work presents FaceX framework, a novel facial generalist model capable of handling diverse facial tasks simultaneously. To achieve this goal, we initially formulate a unified facial representation for a broad spectrum of facial editing tasks, which macroscopically decomposes a face into fundamental identity, intra-personal variation, and environmental factors. Based on this, we introduce Facial Omni-Representation Decomposing (FORD) for seamless manipulation of various facial components, microscopically decomposing the core aspects of most facial editing tasks. Furthermore, by leveraging the prior of a pretrained StableDiffusion (SD) to enhance generation quality and accelerate training, we design Facial Omni-Representation Steering (FORS) to first assemble unified facial representations and then effectively steer the SD-aware generation process by the efficient Facial Representation Controller (FRC). %Without any additional features, Our versatile FaceX achieves competitive performance compared to elaborate task-specific models on popular facial editing tasks. Full codes and models will be available at https://github.com/diffusion-facex/FaceX.
Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) collaborative perception has recently gained significant attention due to its capability to enhance scene understanding by integrating information from various agents, e.g., vehicles, and infrastructure. However, current works often treat the information from each agent equally, ignoring the inherent domain gap caused by the utilization of different LiDAR sensors of each agent, thus leading to suboptimal performance. In this paper, we propose DI-V2X, that aims to learn Domain-Invariant representations through a new distillation framework to mitigate the domain discrepancy in the context of V2X 3D object detection. DI-V2X comprises three essential components: a domain-mixing instance augmentation (DMA) module, a progressive domain-invariant distillation (PDD) module, and a domain-adaptive fusion (DAF) module. Specifically, DMA builds a domain-mixing 3D instance bank for the teacher and student models during training, resulting in aligned data representation. Next, PDD encourages the student models from different domains to gradually learn a domain-invariant feature representation towards the teacher, where the overlapping regions between agents are employed as guidance to facilitate the distillation process. Furthermore, DAF closes the domain gap between the students by incorporating calibration-aware domain-adaptive attention. Extensive experiments on the challenging DAIR-V2X and V2XSet benchmark datasets demonstrate DI-V2X achieves remarkable performance, outperforming all the previous V2X models. Code is available at https://github.com/Serenos/DI-V2X