Previous single-stage detectors typically suffer the misalignment between localization accuracy and classification confidence. To solve the misalignment problem, we introduce a novel rectification method named neighbor IoU-voting (NIV) strategy. Typically, classification and regression are treated as separate branches, making it challenging to establish a connection between them. Consequently, the classification confidence cannot accurately reflect the regression quality. NIV strategy can serve as a bridge between classification and regression branches by calculating two types of statistical data from the regression output to correct the classification confidence. Furthermore, to alleviate the imbalance of detection accuracy for complete objects with dense points (easy objects) and incomplete objects with sparse points (difficult objects), we propose a new data augmentation scheme named object resampling. It undersamples easy objects and oversamples difficult objects by randomly transforming part of easy objects into difficult objects. Finally, combining the NIV strategy and object resampling augmentation, we design an efficient single-stage detector termed NIV-SSD. Extensive experiments on several datasets indicate the effectiveness of the NIV strategy and the competitive performance of the NIV-SSD detector. The code will be available at https://github.com/Say2L/NIV-SSD.
Recently, significant progress has been made in the research of 3D object detection. However, most prior studies have focused on the utilization of center-based or anchor-based label assignment schemes. Alternative label assignment strategies remain unexplored in 3D object detection. We find that the center-based label assignment often fails to generate sufficient positive samples for training, while the anchor-based label assignment tends to encounter an imbalanced issue when handling objects of varying scales. To solve these issues, we introduce a dynamic cross label assignment (DCLA) scheme, which dynamically assigns positive samples for each object from a cross-shaped region, thus providing sufficient and balanced positive samples for training. Furthermore, to address the challenge of accurately regressing objects with varying scales, we put forth a rotation-weighted Intersection over Union (RWIoU) metric to replace the widely used L1 metric in regression loss. Extensive experiments demonstrate the generality and effectiveness of our DCLA and RWIoU-based regression loss. The Code will be available at https://github.com/Say2L/DCDet.git.
Novel view synthesis for dynamic scenes is one of the spotlights in computer vision. The key to efficient dynamic view synthesis is to find a compact representation to store the information across time. Though existing methods achieve fast dynamic view synthesis by tensor decomposition or hash grid feature concatenation, their mixed representations ignore the structural difference between time domain and spatial domain, resulting in sub-optimal computation and storage cost. This paper presents T-Code, the efficient decoupled latent code for the time dimension only. The decomposed feature design enables customizing modules to cater for different scenarios with individual specialty and yielding desired results at lower cost. Based on T-Code, we propose our highly compact hybrid neural graphics primitives (HybridNGP) for multi-camera setting and deformation neural graphics primitives with T-Code (DNGP-T) for monocular scenario. Experiments show that HybridNGP delivers high fidelity results at top processing speed with much less storage consumption, while DNGP-T achieves state-of-the-art quality and high training speed for monocular reconstruction.
Human moderation of online conversation is essential to maintaining civility and focus in a dialogue, but is challenging to scale and harmful to moderators. The inclusion of sophisticated natural language generation modules as a force multiplier aid moderators is a tantalizing prospect, but adequate evaluation approaches have so far been elusive. In this paper, we establish a systematic definition of conversational moderation effectiveness through a multidisciplinary lens that incorporates insights from social science. We then propose a comprehensive evaluation framework that uses this definition to asses models' moderation capabilities independently of human intervention. With our framework, we conduct the first known study of conversational dialogue models as moderators, finding that appropriately prompted models can provide specific and fair feedback on toxic behavior but struggle to influence users to increase their levels of respect and cooperation.
We introduce exploration via linear loss perturbations (EVILL), a randomised exploration method for structured stochastic bandit problems that works by solving for the minimiser of a linearly perturbed regularised negative log-likelihood function. We show that, for the case of generalised linear bandits, EVILL reduces to perturbed history exploration (PHE), a method where exploration is done by training on randomly perturbed rewards. In doing so, we provide a simple and clean explanation of when and why random reward perturbations give rise to good bandit algorithms. With the data-dependent perturbations we propose, not present in previous PHE-type methods, EVILL is shown to match the performance of Thompson-sampling-style parameter-perturbation methods, both in theory and in practice. Moreover, we show an example outside of generalised linear bandits where PHE leads to inconsistent estimates, and thus linear regret, while EVILL remains performant. Like PHE, EVILL can be implemented in just a few lines of code.
Origami offers a promising alternative for designing innovative soft robotic actuators. While features of origami, such as bi-directional motion and structural anisotropy, haven't been extensively explored in the past, this letter presents a novel design inspired by origami tubes for a bi-directional actuator. This actuator is capable of moving in two orthogonal directions and has separate channels throughout its body to control each movement. We introduce a bottom-up design methodology that can also be adapted for other complex movements. The actuator was manufactured using popular 3D printing techniques. To enhance its durability, we experimented with different 3D printing technologies and materials. The actuator's strength was further improved using silicon spin coating, and we compared the performance of coated, uncoated, and silicon-only specimens. The material model was empirically derived by testing specimens on a universal testing machine (UTM). Lastly, we suggest potential applications for these actuators, such as in quadruped robots.
Large vision-language models (VLMs) have achieved substantial progress in multimodal perception and reasoning. Furthermore, when seamlessly integrated into an embodied agent, it signifies a crucial stride towards the creation of autonomous and context-aware systems capable of formulating plans and executing commands with precision. In this paper, we introduce Octopus, a novel VLM designed to proficiently decipher an agent's vision and textual task objectives and to formulate intricate action sequences and generate executable code. Our design allows the agent to adeptly handle a wide spectrum of tasks, ranging from mundane daily chores in simulators to sophisticated interactions in complex video games. Octopus is trained by leveraging GPT-4 to control an explorative agent to generate training data, i.e., action blueprints and the corresponding executable code, within our experimental environment called OctoVerse. We also collect the feedback that allows the enhanced training scheme of Reinforcement Learning with Environmental Feedback (RLEF). Through a series of experiments, we illuminate Octopus's functionality and present compelling results, and the proposed RLEF turns out to refine the agent's decision-making. By open-sourcing our model architecture, simulator, and dataset, we aspire to ignite further innovation and foster collaborative applications within the broader embodied AI community.
Merging multi-exposure images is a common approach for obtaining high dynamic range (HDR) images, with the primary challenge being the avoidance of ghosting artifacts in dynamic scenes. Recent methods have proposed using deep neural networks for deghosting. However, the methods typically rely on sufficient data with HDR ground-truths, which are difficult and costly to collect. In this work, to eliminate the need for labeled data, we propose SelfHDR, a self-supervised HDR reconstruction method that only requires dynamic multi-exposure images during training. Specifically, SelfHDR learns a reconstruction network under the supervision of two complementary components, which can be constructed from multi-exposure images and focus on HDR color as well as structure, respectively. The color component is estimated from aligned multi-exposure images, while the structure one is generated through a structure-focused network that is supervised by the color component and an input reference (\eg, medium-exposure) image. During testing, the learned reconstruction network is directly deployed to predict an HDR image. Experiments on real-world images demonstrate our SelfHDR achieves superior results against the state-of-the-art self-supervised methods, and comparable performance to supervised ones. Codes are available at https://github.com/cszhilu1998/SelfHDR
For improving image composition and aesthetic quality, most existing methods modulate the captured images by striking out redundant content near the image borders. However, such image cropping methods are limited in the range of image views. Some methods have been suggested to extrapolate the images and predict cropping boxes from the extrapolated image. Nonetheless, the synthesized extrapolated regions may be included in the cropped image, making the image composition result not real and potentially with degraded image quality. In this paper, we circumvent this issue by presenting a joint framework for both unbounded recommendation of camera view and image composition (i.e., UNIC). In this way, the cropped image is a sub-image of the image acquired by the predicted camera view, and thus can be guaranteed to be real and consistent in image quality. Specifically, our framework takes the current camera preview frame as input and provides a recommendation for view adjustment, which contains operations unlimited by the image borders, such as zooming in or out and camera movement. To improve the prediction accuracy of view adjustment prediction, we further extend the field of view by feature extrapolation. After one or several times of view adjustments, our method converges and results in both a camera view and a bounding box showing the image composition recommendation. Extensive experiments are conducted on the datasets constructed upon existing image cropping datasets, showing the effectiveness of our UNIC in unbounded recommendation of camera view and image composition. The source code, dataset, and pretrained models is available at https://github.com/liuxiaoyu1104/UNIC.
We present the results of the second Neural MMO challenge, hosted at IJCAI 2022, which received 1600+ submissions. This competition targets robustness and generalization in multi-agent systems: participants train teams of agents to complete a multi-task objective against opponents not seen during training. The competition combines relatively complex environment design with large numbers of agents in the environment. The top submissions demonstrate strong success on this task using mostly standard reinforcement learning (RL) methods combined with domain-specific engineering. We summarize the competition design and results and suggest that, as an academic community, competitions may be a powerful approach to solving hard problems and establishing a solid benchmark for algorithms. We will open-source our benchmark including the environment wrapper, baselines, a visualization tool, and selected policies for further research.