In this paper, we propose R$^3$: Learning Reasoning through Reverse Curriculum Reinforcement Learning (RL), a novel method that employs only outcome supervision to achieve the benefits of process supervision for large language models. The core challenge in applying RL to complex reasoning is to identify a sequence of actions that result in positive rewards and provide appropriate supervision for optimization. Outcome supervision provides sparse rewards for final results without identifying error locations, whereas process supervision offers step-wise rewards but requires extensive manual annotation. R$^3$ overcomes these limitations by learning from correct demonstrations. Specifically, R$^3$ progressively slides the start state of reasoning from a demonstration's end to its beginning, facilitating easier model exploration at all stages. Thus, R$^3$ establishes a step-wise curriculum, allowing outcome supervision to offer step-level signals and precisely pinpoint errors. Using Llama2-7B, our method surpasses RL baseline on eight reasoning tasks by $4.1$ points on average. Notebaly, in program-based reasoning on GSM8K, it exceeds the baseline by $4.2$ points across three backbone models, and without any extra data, Codellama-7B + R$^3$ performs comparable to larger models or closed-source models.
The advancement of large language models (LLMs) has significantly propelled the field of code generation. Previous work integrated reinforcement learning (RL) with compiler feedback for exploring the output space of LLMs to enhance code generation quality. However, the lengthy code generated by LLMs in response to complex human requirements makes RL exploration a challenge. Also, since the unit tests may not cover the complicated code, optimizing LLMs by using these unexecuted code snippets is ineffective. To tackle these challenges, we introduce StepCoder, a novel RL framework for code generation, consisting of two main components: CCCS addresses the exploration challenge by breaking the long sequences code generation task into a Curriculum of Code Completion Subtasks, while FGO only optimizes the model by masking the unexecuted code segments to provide Fine-Grained Optimization. In addition, we furthermore construct the APPS+ dataset for RL training, which is manually verified to ensure the correctness of unit tests. Experimental results show that our method improves the ability to explore the output space and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches in corresponding benchmarks. Our dataset APPS+ and StepCoder are available online.
Current large vision-language models (VLMs) often encounter challenges such as insufficient capabilities of a single visual component and excessively long visual tokens. These issues can limit the model's effectiveness in accurately interpreting complex visual information and over-lengthy contextual information. Addressing these challenges is crucial for enhancing the performance and applicability of VLMs. This paper proposes the use of ensemble experts technique to synergizes the capabilities of individual visual encoders, including those skilled in image-text matching, OCR, image segmentation, etc. This technique introduces a fusion network to unify the processing of outputs from different visual experts, while bridging the gap between image encoders and pre-trained LLMs. In addition, we explore different positional encoding schemes to alleviate the waste of positional encoding caused by lengthy image feature sequences, effectively addressing the issue of position overflow and length limitations. For instance, in our implementation, this technique significantly reduces the positional occupancy in models like SAM, from a substantial 4096 to a more efficient and manageable 64 or even down to 1. Experimental results demonstrate that VLMs with multiple experts exhibit consistently superior performance over isolated visual encoders and mark a significant performance boost as more experts are integrated. We have open-sourced the training code used in this report. All of these resources can be found on our project website.
Tool learning has generated widespread interest as a vital means of interaction between Large Language Models (LLMs) and the physical world. Current research predominantly emphasizes LLMs' capacity to utilize tools in well-structured environments while overlooking their stability when confronted with the inevitable noise of the real world. To bridge this gap, we introduce RoTBench, a multi-level benchmark for evaluating the robustness of LLMs in tool learning. Specifically, we establish five external environments, each featuring varying levels of noise (i.e., Clean, Slight, Medium, Heavy, and Union), providing an in-depth analysis of the model's resilience across three critical phases: tool selection, parameter identification, and content filling. Experiments involving six widely-used models underscore the urgent necessity for enhancing the robustness of LLMs in tool learning. For instance, the performance of GPT-4 even drops significantly from 80.00 to 58.10 when there is no substantial change in manual accuracy. More surprisingly, the noise correction capability inherent in the GPT family paradoxically impedes its adaptability in the face of mild noise. In light of these findings, we propose RoTTuning, a strategy that enriches the diversity of training environments to bolster the robustness of LLMs in tool learning. The code and data are available at https://github.com/Junjie-Ye/RoTBench.
Existing evaluations of tool learning primarily focus on validating the alignment of selected tools for large language models (LLMs) with expected outcomes. However, these approaches rely on a limited set of scenarios where answers can be pre-determined, diverging from genuine needs. Furthermore, a sole emphasis on outcomes disregards the intricate capabilities essential for LLMs to effectively utilize tools. To tackle this issue, we propose ToolEyes, a fine-grained system tailored for the evaluation of the LLMs' tool learning capabilities in authentic scenarios. The system meticulously examines seven real-world scenarios, analyzing five dimensions crucial to LLMs in tool learning: format alignment, intent comprehension, behavior planning, tool selection, and answer organization. Additionally, ToolEyes incorporates a tool library boasting approximately 600 tools, serving as an intermediary between LLMs and the physical world. Evaluations involving ten LLMs across three categories reveal a preference for specific scenarios and limited cognitive abilities in tool learning. Intriguingly, expanding the model size even exacerbates the hindrance to tool learning. These findings offer instructive insights aimed at advancing the field of tool learning. The data is available att https://github.com/Junjie-Ye/ToolEyes.
Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) has become a crucial technology for aligning language models with human values and intentions, enabling models to produce more helpful and harmless responses. Reward models are trained as proxies for human preferences to drive reinforcement learning optimization. While reward models are often considered central to achieving high performance, they face the following challenges in practical applications: (1) Incorrect and ambiguous preference pairs in the dataset may hinder the reward model from accurately capturing human intent. (2) Reward models trained on data from a specific distribution often struggle to generalize to examples outside that distribution and are not suitable for iterative RLHF training. In this report, we attempt to address these two issues. (1) From a data perspective, we propose a method to measure the strength of preferences within the data, based on a voting mechanism of multiple reward models. Experimental results confirm that data with varying preference strengths have different impacts on reward model performance. We introduce a series of novel methods to mitigate the influence of incorrect and ambiguous preferences in the dataset and fully leverage high-quality preference data. (2) From an algorithmic standpoint, we introduce contrastive learning to enhance the ability of reward models to distinguish between chosen and rejected responses, thereby improving model generalization. Furthermore, we employ meta-learning to enable the reward model to maintain the ability to differentiate subtle differences in out-of-distribution samples, and this approach can be utilized for iterative RLHF optimization.
Supervised fine-tuning (SFT) is a crucial step for large language models (LLMs), enabling them to align with human instructions and enhance their capabilities in downstream tasks. When the models are required to align with a broader range of downstream tasks, or there is a desire to notably improve the performance on a specific task, a substantial increase in fine-tuning data often emerges as the solution. However, we find that large-scale increases in instruction data can disrupt the world knowledge previously stored in the LLMs, i.e., world knowledge forgetting. In this paper, we introduce LoRAMoE to address the above challenge. The LoRAMoE is a plugin version of Mixture of Experts (MoE). The plugin form ensures the integrity of world knowledge by freezing the backbone model during the training phase. We then propose the use of localized balancing constraints to coordinate parts of experts for task utilization, meanwhile enabling other experts to fully leverage the world knowledge stored in the models. Experimental results demonstrate that LoRAMoE can reasonably coordinate experts based on data type during inference, and even dramatically increasing instruction data does not result in knowledge forgetting. Moreover, LoRAMoE provides additional benefits for the performance of downstream tasks, indicating the potential of our approach for multi-task learning.
Reports of human-like behaviors in foundation models are growing, with psychological theories providing enduring tools to investigate these behaviors. However, current research tends to directly apply these human-oriented tools without verifying the faithfulness of their outcomes. In this paper, we introduce a framework, RealBehavior, which is designed to characterize the humanoid behaviors of models faithfully. Beyond simply measuring behaviors, our framework assesses the faithfulness of results based on reproducibility, internal and external consistency, and generalizability. Our findings suggest that a simple application of psychological tools cannot faithfully characterize all human-like behaviors. Moreover, we discuss the impacts of aligning models with human and social values, arguing for the necessity of diversifying alignment objectives to prevent the creation of models with restricted characteristics.