In this paper, we propose R$^3$: Learning Reasoning through Reverse Curriculum Reinforcement Learning (RL), a novel method that employs only outcome supervision to achieve the benefits of process supervision for large language models. The core challenge in applying RL to complex reasoning is to identify a sequence of actions that result in positive rewards and provide appropriate supervision for optimization. Outcome supervision provides sparse rewards for final results without identifying error locations, whereas process supervision offers step-wise rewards but requires extensive manual annotation. R$^3$ overcomes these limitations by learning from correct demonstrations. Specifically, R$^3$ progressively slides the start state of reasoning from a demonstration's end to its beginning, facilitating easier model exploration at all stages. Thus, R$^3$ establishes a step-wise curriculum, allowing outcome supervision to offer step-level signals and precisely pinpoint errors. Using Llama2-7B, our method surpasses RL baseline on eight reasoning tasks by $4.1$ points on average. Notebaly, in program-based reasoning on GSM8K, it exceeds the baseline by $4.2$ points across three backbone models, and without any extra data, Codellama-7B + R$^3$ performs comparable to larger models or closed-source models.
For a long time, humanity has pursued artificial intelligence (AI) equivalent to or surpassing the human level, with AI agents considered a promising vehicle for this pursuit. AI agents are artificial entities that sense their environment, make decisions, and take actions. Many efforts have been made to develop intelligent agents, but they mainly focus on advancement in algorithms or training strategies to enhance specific capabilities or performance on particular tasks. Actually, what the community lacks is a general and powerful model to serve as a starting point for designing AI agents that can adapt to diverse scenarios. Due to the versatile capabilities they demonstrate, large language models (LLMs) are regarded as potential sparks for Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), offering hope for building general AI agents. Many researchers have leveraged LLMs as the foundation to build AI agents and have achieved significant progress. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive survey on LLM-based agents. We start by tracing the concept of agents from its philosophical origins to its development in AI, and explain why LLMs are suitable foundations for agents. Building upon this, we present a general framework for LLM-based agents, comprising three main components: brain, perception, and action, and the framework can be tailored for different applications. Subsequently, we explore the extensive applications of LLM-based agents in three aspects: single-agent scenarios, multi-agent scenarios, and human-agent cooperation. Following this, we delve into agent societies, exploring the behavior and personality of LLM-based agents, the social phenomena that emerge from an agent society, and the insights they offer for human society. Finally, we discuss several key topics and open problems within the field. A repository for the related papers at https://github.com/WooooDyy/LLM-Agent-Paper-List.
Semantic matching is a mainstream paradigm of zero-shot relation extraction, which matches a given input with a corresponding label description. The entities in the input should exactly match their hypernyms in the description, while the irrelevant contexts should be ignored when matching. However, general matching methods lack explicit modeling of the above matching pattern. In this work, we propose a fine-grained semantic matching method tailored for zero-shot relation extraction. Following the above matching pattern, we decompose the sentence-level similarity score into entity and context matching scores. Due to the lack of explicit annotations of the redundant components, we design a feature distillation module to adaptively identify the relation-irrelevant features and reduce their negative impact on context matching. Experimental results show that our method achieves higher matching $F_1$ score and has an inference speed 10 times faster, when compared with the state-of-the-art methods.
Pretrained language models have achieved remarkable success in various natural language processing tasks. However, pretraining has recently shifted toward larger models and larger data, and this has resulted in significant computational and energy costs. In this paper, we propose Influence Subset Selection (ISS) for language model, which explicitly utilizes end-task knowledge to select a tiny subset of the pretraining corpus. Specifically, the ISS selects the samples that will provide the most positive influence on the performance of the end-task. Furthermore, we design a gradient matching based influence estimation method, which can drastically reduce the computation time of influence. With only 0.45% of the data and a three-orders-of-magnitude lower computational cost, ISS outperformed pretrained models (e.g., RoBERTa) on eight datasets covering four domains.
Text semantic matching is a fundamental task that has been widely used in various scenarios, such as community question answering, information retrieval, and recommendation. Most state-of-the-art matching models, e.g., BERT, directly perform text comparison by processing each word uniformly. However, a query sentence generally comprises content that calls for different levels of matching granularity. Specifically, keywords represent factual information such as action, entity, and event that should be strictly matched, while intents convey abstract concepts and ideas that can be paraphrased into various expressions. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective training strategy for text semantic matching in a divide-and-conquer manner by disentangling keywords from intents. Our approach can be easily combined with pre-trained language models (PLM) without influencing their inference efficiency, achieving stable performance improvements against a wide range of PLMs on three benchmarks.