Self-alignment is an effective way to reduce the cost of human annotation while ensuring promising model capability. However, most current methods complete the data collection and training steps in a single round, which may overlook the continuously improving ability of self-aligned models. This gives rise to a key query: What if we do multi-time bootstrapping self-alignment? Does this strategy enhance model performance or lead to rapid degradation? In this paper, our pioneering exploration delves into the impact of bootstrapping self-alignment on large language models. Our findings reveal that bootstrapping self-alignment markedly surpasses the single-round approach, by guaranteeing data diversity from in-context learning. To further exploit the capabilities of bootstrapping, we investigate and adjust the training order of data, which yields improved performance of the model. Drawing on these findings, we propose Step-On-Feet Tuning (SOFT) which leverages model's continuously enhanced few-shot ability to boost zero or one-shot performance. Based on easy-to-hard training recipe, we propose SOFT+ which further boost self-alignment's performance. Our experiments demonstrate the efficiency of SOFT (SOFT+) across various classification and generation tasks, highlighting the potential of bootstrapping self-alignment on continually enhancing model alignment performance.
Segmentation is a critical step in analyzing the developing human fetal brain. There have been vast improvements in automatic segmentation methods in the past several years, and the Fetal Brain Tissue Annotation (FeTA) Challenge 2021 helped to establish an excellent standard of fetal brain segmentation. However, FeTA 2021 was a single center study, and the generalizability of algorithms across different imaging centers remains unsolved, limiting real-world clinical applicability. The multi-center FeTA Challenge 2022 focuses on advancing the generalizability of fetal brain segmentation algorithms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In FeTA 2022, the training dataset contained images and corresponding manually annotated multi-class labels from two imaging centers, and the testing data contained images from these two imaging centers as well as two additional unseen centers. The data from different centers varied in many aspects, including scanners used, imaging parameters, and fetal brain super-resolution algorithms applied. 16 teams participated in the challenge, and 17 algorithms were evaluated. Here, a detailed overview and analysis of the challenge results are provided, focusing on the generalizability of the submissions. Both in- and out of domain, the white matter and ventricles were segmented with the highest accuracy, while the most challenging structure remains the cerebral cortex due to anatomical complexity. The FeTA Challenge 2022 was able to successfully evaluate and advance generalizability of multi-class fetal brain tissue segmentation algorithms for MRI and it continues to benchmark new algorithms. The resulting new methods contribute to improving the analysis of brain development in utero.
* Results from FeTA Challenge 2022, held at MICCAI; Manuscript
submitted. Supplementary Info (including submission methods descriptions)
available here: https://zenodo.org/records/10628648
Open-source large language models (LLMs) have gained significant strength across diverse fields. Nevertheless, the majority of studies primarily concentrate on English, with only limited exploration into the realm of multilingual supervised fine-tuning. In this work, we therefore construct an open-source multilingual supervised fine-tuning dataset. Different from previous works that simply translate English instructions, we consider both the language-specific and language-agnostic abilities of LLMs. For language-specific abilities, we introduce a knowledge-grounded data augmentation approach to elicit more culture-specific knowledge of LLMs, improving their ability to serve users from different countries. For language-agnostic abilities, we find through experiments that modern LLMs exhibit strong cross-lingual transfer capabilities, thus repeatedly learning identical content in various languages is not necessary. Consequently, we can substantially prune the language-agnostic SFT data without any performance degradation, making the SFT process more efficient. The resulting UltraLink dataset comprises approximately 1 million samples across five languages, and the proposed data construction method can also be easily extended to other languages. UltraLink-LM, which is trained on UltraLink, outperforms several representative baselines across many tasks.
Machine unlearning has raised significant interest with the adoption of laws ensuring the ``right to be forgotten''. Researchers have provided a probabilistic notion of approximate unlearning under a similar definition of Differential Privacy (DP), where privacy is defined as statistical indistinguishability to retraining from scratch. We propose Langevin unlearning, an unlearning framework based on noisy gradient descent with privacy guarantees for approximate unlearning problems. Langevin unlearning unifies the DP learning process and the privacy-certified unlearning process with many algorithmic benefits. These include approximate certified unlearning for non-convex problems, complexity saving compared to retraining, sequential and batch unlearning for multiple unlearning requests. We verify the practicality of Langevin unlearning by studying its privacy-utility-complexity trade-off via experiments on benchmark datasets, and also demonstrate its superiority against gradient-decent-plus-output-perturbation based approximate unlearning.
Vulnerability detectors based on deep learning (DL) models have proven their effectiveness in recent years. However, the shroud of opacity surrounding the decision-making process of these detectors makes it difficult for security analysts to comprehend. To address this, various explanation approaches have been proposed to explain the predictions by highlighting important features, which have been demonstrated effective in other domains such as computer vision and natural language processing. Unfortunately, an in-depth evaluation of vulnerability-critical features, such as fine-grained vulnerability-related code lines, learned and understood by these explanation approaches remains lacking. In this study, we first evaluate the performance of ten explanation approaches for vulnerability detectors based on graph and sequence representations, measured by two quantitative metrics including fidelity and vulnerability line coverage rate. Our results show that fidelity alone is not sufficient for evaluating these approaches, as fidelity incurs significant fluctuations across different datasets and detectors. We subsequently check the precision of the vulnerability-related code lines reported by the explanation approaches, and find poor accuracy in this task among all of them. This can be attributed to the inefficiency of explainers in selecting important features and the presence of irrelevant artifacts learned by DL-based detectors.
Pre-training, which utilizes extensive and varied datasets, is a critical factor in the success of Large Language Models (LLMs) across numerous applications. However, the detailed makeup of these datasets is often not disclosed, leading to concerns about data security and potential misuse. This is particularly relevant when copyrighted material, still under legal protection, is used inappropriately, either intentionally or unintentionally, infringing on the rights of the authors. In this paper, we introduce a detailed framework designed to detect and assess the presence of content from potentially copyrighted books within the training datasets of LLMs. This framework also provides a confidence estimation for the likelihood of each content sample's inclusion. To validate our approach, we conduct a series of simulated experiments, the results of which affirm the framework's effectiveness in identifying and addressing instances of content misuse in LLM training processes. Furthermore, we investigate the presence of recognizable quotes from famous literary works within these datasets. The outcomes of our study have significant implications for ensuring the ethical use of copyrighted materials in the development of LLMs, highlighting the need for more transparent and responsible data management practices in this field.
OpenAI's latest large vision-language model (LVLM), GPT-4V(ision), has piqued considerable interest for its potential in medical applications. Despite its promise, recent studies and internal reviews highlight its underperformance in specialized medical tasks. This paper explores the boundary of GPT-4V's capabilities in medicine, particularly in processing complex imaging data from endoscopies, CT scans, and MRIs etc. Leveraging open-source datasets, we assessed its foundational competencies, identifying substantial areas for enhancement. Our research emphasizes prompt engineering, an often-underutilized strategy for improving AI responsiveness. Through iterative testing, we refined the model's prompts, significantly improving its interpretative accuracy and relevance in medical imaging. From our comprehensive evaluations, we distilled 10 effective prompt engineering techniques, each fortifying GPT-4V's medical acumen. These methodical enhancements facilitate more reliable, precise, and clinically valuable insights from GPT-4V, advancing its operability in critical healthcare environments. Our findings are pivotal for those employing AI in medicine, providing clear, actionable guidance on harnessing GPT-4V's full diagnostic potential.
Segment Anything Model (SAM) has achieved impressive results for natural image segmentation with input prompts such as points and bounding boxes. Its success largely owes to massive labeled training data. However, directly applying SAM to medical image segmentation cannot perform well because SAM lacks medical knowledge -- it does not use medical images for training. To incorporate medical knowledge into SAM, we introduce SA-Med2D-20M, a large-scale segmentation dataset of 2D medical images built upon numerous public and private datasets. It consists of 4.6 million 2D medical images and 19.7 million corresponding masks, covering almost the whole body and showing significant diversity. This paper describes all the datasets collected in SA-Med2D-20M and details how to process these datasets. Furthermore, comprehensive statistics of SA-Med2D-20M are presented to facilitate the better use of our dataset, which can help the researchers build medical vision foundation models or apply their models to downstream medical applications. We hope that the large scale and diversity of SA-Med2D-20M can be leveraged to develop medical artificial intelligence for enhancing diagnosis, medical image analysis, knowledge sharing, and education. The data with the redistribution license is publicly available at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/SAM-Med2D.
Although the Segment Anything Model (SAM) has demonstrated impressive performance in 2D natural image segmentation, its application to 3D volumetric medical images reveals significant shortcomings, namely suboptimal performance and unstable prediction, necessitating an excessive number of prompt points to attain the desired outcomes. These issues can hardly be addressed by fine-tuning SAM on medical data because the original 2D structure of SAM neglects 3D spatial information. In this paper, we introduce SAM-Med3D, the most comprehensive study to modify SAM for 3D medical images. Our approach is characterized by its comprehensiveness in two primary aspects: firstly, by comprehensively reformulating SAM to a thorough 3D architecture trained on a comprehensively processed large-scale volumetric medical dataset; and secondly, by providing a comprehensive evaluation of its performance. Specifically, we train SAM-Med3D with over 131K 3D masks and 247 categories. Our SAM-Med3D excels at capturing 3D spatial information, exhibiting competitive performance with significantly fewer prompt points than the top-performing fine-tuned SAM in the medical domain. We then evaluate its capabilities across 15 datasets and analyze it from multiple perspectives, including anatomical structures, modalities, targets, and generalization abilities. Our approach, compared with SAM, showcases pronouncedly enhanced efficiency and broad segmentation capabilities for 3D volumetric medical images. Our code is released at https://github.com/uni-medical/SAM-Med3D.