3D panoptic segmentation is a challenging perception task, which aims to predict both semantic and instance annotations for 3D points in a scene. Although prior 3D panoptic segmentation approaches have achieved great performance on closed-set benchmarks, generalizing to novel categories remains an open problem. For unseen object categories, 2D open-vocabulary segmentation has achieved promising results that solely rely on frozen CLIP backbones and ensembling multiple classification outputs. However, we find that simply extending these 2D models to 3D does not achieve good performance due to poor per-mask classification quality on novel categories. In this paper, we propose the first method to tackle 3D open-vocabulary panoptic segmentation. Our model takes advantage of the fusion between learnable LiDAR features and dense frozen vision CLIP features, using a single classification head to make predictions for both base and novel classes. To further improve the classification performance on novel classes and leverage the CLIP model, we propose two novel loss functions: object-level distillation loss and voxel-level distillation loss. Our experiments on the nuScenes and SemanticKITTI datasets show that our method outperforms strong baselines by a large margin.
We present a novel framework for generating photorealistic 3D human head and subsequently manipulating and reposing them with remarkable flexibility. The proposed approach leverages an implicit function representation of 3D human heads, employing 3D Gaussians anchored on a parametric face model. To enhance representational capabilities and encode spatial information, we embed a lightweight tri-plane payload within each Gaussian rather than directly storing color and opacity. Additionally, we parameterize the Gaussians in a 2D UV space via a 3DMM, enabling effective utilization of the diffusion model for 3D head avatar generation. Our method facilitates the creation of diverse and realistic 3D human heads with fine-grained editing over facial features and expressions. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
For a robot to personalize physical assistance effectively, it must learn user preferences that can be generally reapplied to future scenarios. In this work, we investigate personalization of household cleanup with robots that can tidy up rooms by picking up objects and putting them away. A key challenge is determining the proper place to put each object, as people's preferences can vary greatly depending on personal taste or cultural background. For instance, one person may prefer storing shirts in the drawer, while another may prefer them on the shelf. We aim to build systems that can learn such preferences from just a handful of examples via prior interactions with a particular person. We show that robots can combine language-based planning and perception with the few-shot summarization capabilities of large language models (LLMs) to infer generalized user preferences that are broadly applicable to future interactions. This approach enables fast adaptation and achieves 91.2% accuracy on unseen objects in our benchmark dataset. We also demonstrate our approach on a real-world mobile manipulator called TidyBot, which successfully puts away 85.0% of objects in real-world test scenarios.
Removing clutter from scenes is essential in many applications, ranging from privacy-concerned content filtering to data augmentation. In this work, we present an automatic system that removes clutter from 3D scenes and inpaints with coherent geometry and texture. We propose techniques for its two key components: 3D segmentation from shared properties and 3D inpainting, both of which are important porblems. The definition of 3D scene clutter (frequently-moving objects) is not well captured by commonly-studied object categories in computer vision. To tackle the lack of well-defined clutter annotations, we group noisy fine-grained labels, leverage virtual rendering, and impose an instance-level area-sensitive loss. Once clutter is removed, we inpaint geometry and texture in the resulting holes by merging inpainted RGB-D images. This requires novel voting and pruning strategies that guarantee multi-view consistency across individually inpainted images for mesh reconstruction. Experiments on ScanNet and Matterport dataset show that our method outperforms baselines for clutter segmentation and 3D inpainting, both visually and quantitatively.
Photorealistic object appearance modeling from 2D images is a constant topic in vision and graphics. While neural implicit methods (such as Neural Radiance Fields) have shown high-fidelity view synthesis results, they cannot relight the captured objects. More recent neural inverse rendering approaches have enabled object relighting, but they represent surface properties as simple BRDFs, and therefore cannot handle translucent objects. We propose Object-Centric Neural Scattering Functions (OSFs) for learning to reconstruct object appearance from only images. OSFs not only support free-viewpoint object relighting, but also can model both opaque and translucent objects. While accurately modeling subsurface light transport for translucent objects can be highly complex and even intractable for neural methods, OSFs learn to approximate the radiance transfer from a distant light to an outgoing direction at any spatial location. This approximation avoids explicitly modeling complex subsurface scattering, making learning a neural implicit model tractable. Experiments on real and synthetic data show that OSFs accurately reconstruct appearances for both opaque and translucent objects, allowing faithful free-viewpoint relighting as well as scene composition.
* Journal extension of arXiv:2012.08503. The first two authors
contributed equally to this work
We address efficient and structure-aware 3D scene representation from images. Nerflets are our key contribution -- a set of local neural radiance fields that together represent a scene. Each nerflet maintains its own spatial position, orientation, and extent, within which it contributes to panoptic, density, and radiance reconstructions. By leveraging only photometric and inferred panoptic image supervision, we can directly and jointly optimize the parameters of a set of nerflets so as to form a decomposed representation of the scene, where each object instance is represented by a group of nerflets. During experiments with indoor and outdoor environments, we find that nerflets: (1) fit and approximate the scene more efficiently than traditional global NeRFs, (2) allow the extraction of panoptic and photometric renderings from arbitrary views, and (3) enable tasks rare for NeRFs, such as 3D panoptic segmentation and interactive editing.
Neural fields have emerged as a new paradigm for representing signals, thanks to their ability to do it compactly while being easy to optimize. In most applications, however, neural fields are treated like black boxes, which precludes many signal manipulation tasks. In this paper, we propose a new class of neural fields called polynomial neural fields (PNFs). The key advantage of a PNF is that it can represent a signal as a composition of a number of manipulable and interpretable components without losing the merits of neural fields representation. We develop a general theoretical framework to analyze and design PNFs. We use this framework to design Fourier PNFs, which match state-of-the-art performance in signal representation tasks that use neural fields. In addition, we empirically demonstrate that Fourier PNFs enable signal manipulation applications such as texture transfer and scale-space interpolation. Code is available at https://github.com/stevenygd/PNF.
Traditional 3D scene understanding approaches rely on labeled 3D datasets to train a model for a single task with supervision. We propose OpenScene, an alternative approach where a model predicts dense features for 3D scene points that are co-embedded with text and image pixels in CLIP feature space. This zero-shot approach enables task-agnostic training and open-vocabulary queries. For example, to perform SOTA zero-shot 3D semantic segmentation it first infers CLIP features for every 3D point and later classifies them based on similarities to embeddings of arbitrary class labels. More interestingly, it enables a suite of open-vocabulary scene understanding applications that have never been done before. For example, it allows a user to enter an arbitrary text query and then see a heat map indicating which parts of a scene match. Our approach is effective at identifying objects, materials, affordances, activities, and room types in complex 3D scenes, all using a single model trained without any labeled 3D data.
We propose to model longer-term future human behavior by jointly predicting action labels and 3D characteristic poses (3D poses representative of the associated actions). While previous work has considered action and 3D pose forecasting separately, we observe that the nature of the two tasks is coupled, and thus we predict them together. Starting from an input 2D video observation, we jointly predict a future sequence of actions along with 3D poses characterizing these actions. Since coupled action labels and 3D pose annotations are difficult and expensive to acquire for videos of complex action sequences, we train our approach with action labels and 2D pose supervision from two existing action video datasets, in tandem with an adversarial loss that encourages likely 3D predicted poses. Our experiments demonstrate the complementary nature of joint action and characteristic 3D pose prediction: our joint approach outperforms each task treated individually, enables robust longer-term sequence prediction, and outperforms alternative approaches to forecast actions and characteristic 3D poses.