One of the main challenges of multimodal learning is the need to combine heterogeneous modalities (e.g., video, audio, text). For example, video and audio are obtained at much higher rates than text and are roughly aligned in time. They are often not synchronized with text, which comes as a global context, e.g., a title, or a description. Furthermore, video and audio inputs are of much larger volumes, and grow as the video length increases, which naturally requires more compute dedicated to these modalities and makes modeling of long-range dependencies harder. We here decouple the multimodal modeling, dividing it into separate, focused autoregressive models, processing the inputs according to the characteristics of the modalities. We propose a multimodal model, called Mirasol3B, consisting of an autoregressive component for the time-synchronized modalities (audio and video), and an autoregressive component for the context modalities which are not necessarily aligned in time but are still sequential. To address the long-sequences of the video-audio inputs, we propose to further partition the video and audio sequences in consecutive snippets and autoregressively process their representations. To that end, we propose a Combiner mechanism, which models the audio-video information jointly within a timeframe. The Combiner learns to extract audio and video features from raw spatio-temporal signals, and then learns to fuse these features producing compact but expressive representations per snippet. Our approach achieves the state-of-the-art on well established multimodal benchmarks, outperforming much larger models. It effectively addresses the high computational demand of media inputs by both learning compact representations, controlling the sequence length of the audio-video feature representations, and modeling their dependencies in time.
We present a new open-vocabulary detection approach based on detection-oriented image-text pretraining to bridge the gap between image-level pretraining and open-vocabulary object detection. At the pretraining phase, we replace the commonly used classification architecture with the detector architecture, which better serves the region-level recognition needs of detection by enabling the detector heads to learn from noisy image-text pairs. Using only standard contrastive loss and no pseudo-labeling, our approach is a simple yet effective extension of the contrastive learning method to learn emergent object-semantic cues. In addition, we propose a shifted-window learning approach upon window attention to make the backbone representation more robust, translation-invariant, and less biased by the window pattern. On the popular LVIS open-vocabulary detection benchmark, our approach sets a new state of the art of 40.4 mask AP$_r$ using the common ViT-L backbone, significantly outperforming the best existing approach by +6.5 mask AP$_r$ at system level. On the COCO benchmark, we achieve very competitive 40.8 novel AP without pseudo labeling or weak supervision. In addition, we evaluate our approach on the transfer detection setup, where ours outperforms the baseline significantly. Visualization reveals emerging object locality from the pretraining recipes compared to the baseline. Code and models will be publicly released.
We present Contrastive Feature Masking Vision Transformer (CFM-ViT) - an image-text pretraining methodology that achieves simultaneous learning of image- and region-level representation for open-vocabulary object detection (OVD). Our approach combines the masked autoencoder (MAE) objective into the contrastive learning objective to improve the representation for localization tasks. Unlike standard MAE, we perform reconstruction in the joint image-text embedding space, rather than the pixel space as is customary with the classical MAE method, which causes the model to better learn region-level semantics. Moreover, we introduce Positional Embedding Dropout (PED) to address scale variation between image-text pretraining and detection finetuning by randomly dropping out the positional embeddings during pretraining. PED improves detection performance and enables the use of a frozen ViT backbone as a region classifier, preventing the forgetting of open-vocabulary knowledge during detection finetuning. On LVIS open-vocabulary detection benchmark, CFM-ViT achieves a state-of-the-art 33.9 AP$r$, surpassing the best approach by 7.6 points and achieves better zero-shot detection transfer. Finally, CFM-ViT acquires strong image-level representation, outperforming the state of the art on 8 out of 12 metrics on zero-shot image-text retrieval benchmarks.
Building joint representations across images and text is an essential step for tasks such as Visual Question Answering and Video Question Answering. In this work, we find that the representations must not only jointly capture features from both modalities but should also be diverse for better generalization performance. To this end, we propose joint vision-language representation learning by diversifying the tokenization learning process, enabling tokens that are sufficiently disentangled from each other to be learned from both modalities. We observe that our approach outperforms the baseline models in a majority of settings and is competitive with state-of-the-art methods.
Image-language learning has made unprecedented progress in visual understanding. These developments have come at high costs, as contemporary vision-language models require large model scales and amounts of data. We here propose a much easier recipe for image-language learning, which produces effective models, outperforming bigger and more expensive ones, often trained on orders of magnitude larger datasets. Our key finding is the joint learning of a compact vision and language representation, which adaptively and iteratively fuses the multi-modal features. This results in a more effective image-language learning, greatly lowering the FLOPs by combining and reducing the number of tokens for both text and images, e.g. a 33\% reduction in FLOPs is achieved, compared to baseline fusion techniques used by popular image-language models, while improving performance. This also allows the model to scale without a large increase in FLOPs or memory. In addition, we propose adaptive pre-training data sampling which improves the data efficiency. The proposed approach achieves competitive performance compared to much larger models, and does so with significantly less data and FLOPs. With only 40M training examples and with 39 GFLOPs our lightweight model outperforms many times larger state-of-the-art models of 2-20x more FLOPs and using bigger datasets some of which with close to 1B training examples.
We present the training recipe and results of scaling up PaLI-X, a multilingual vision and language model, both in terms of size of the components and the breadth of its training task mixture. Our model achieves new levels of performance on a wide-range of varied and complex tasks, including multiple image-based captioning and question-answering tasks, image-based document understanding and few-shot (in-context) learning, as well as object detection, video question answering, and video captioning. PaLI-X advances the state-of-the-art on most vision-and-language benchmarks considered (25+ of them). Finally, we observe emerging capabilities, such as complex counting and multilingual object detection, tasks that are not explicitly in the training mix.
We present Region-aware Open-vocabulary Vision Transformers (RO-ViT) - a contrastive image-text pretraining recipe to bridge the gap between image-level pretraining and open-vocabulary object detection. At the pretraining phase, we propose to randomly crop and resize regions of positional embeddings instead of using the whole image positional embeddings. This better matches the use of positional embeddings at region-level in the detection finetuning phase. In addition, we replace the common softmax cross entropy loss in contrastive learning with focal loss to better learn the informative yet difficult examples. Finally, we leverage recent advances in novel object proposals to improve open-vocabulary detection finetuning. We evaluate our full model on the LVIS and COCO open-vocabulary detection benchmarks and zero-shot transfer. RO-ViT achieves a state-of-the-art 32.1 $AP_r$ on LVIS, surpassing the best existing approach by +5.8 points in addition to competitive zero-shot transfer detection. Surprisingly, RO-ViT improves the image-level representation as well and achieves the state of the art on 9 out of 12 metrics on COCO and Flickr image-text retrieval benchmarks, outperforming competitive approaches with larger models.
The development of language models have moved from encoder-decoder to decoder-only designs. In addition, the common knowledge has it that the two most popular multimodal tasks, the generative and contrastive tasks, tend to conflict with one another, are hard to accommodate in one architecture, and further need complex adaptations for downstream tasks. We propose a novel paradigm of training with a decoder-only model for multimodal tasks, which is surprisingly effective in jointly learning of these disparate vision-language tasks. This is done with a simple model, called MaMMUT. It consists of a single vision encoder and a text decoder, and is able to accommodate contrastive and generative learning by a novel two-pass approach on the text decoder. We demonstrate that joint learning of these diverse objectives is simple, effective, and maximizes the weight-sharing of the model across these tasks. Furthermore, the same architecture enables straightforward extensions to open-vocabulary object detection and video-language tasks. The model tackles a diverse range of tasks, while being modest in capacity. Our model achieves the state of the art on image-text and text-image retrieval, video question answering and open-vocabulary detection tasks, outperforming much larger and more extensively trained foundational models. It shows very competitive results on VQA and Video Captioning, especially considering its capacity. Ablations confirm the flexibility and advantages of our approach.