3D panoptic segmentation is a challenging perception task, which aims to predict both semantic and instance annotations for 3D points in a scene. Although prior 3D panoptic segmentation approaches have achieved great performance on closed-set benchmarks, generalizing to novel categories remains an open problem. For unseen object categories, 2D open-vocabulary segmentation has achieved promising results that solely rely on frozen CLIP backbones and ensembling multiple classification outputs. However, we find that simply extending these 2D models to 3D does not achieve good performance due to poor per-mask classification quality on novel categories. In this paper, we propose the first method to tackle 3D open-vocabulary panoptic segmentation. Our model takes advantage of the fusion between learnable LiDAR features and dense frozen vision CLIP features, using a single classification head to make predictions for both base and novel classes. To further improve the classification performance on novel classes and leverage the CLIP model, we propose two novel loss functions: object-level distillation loss and voxel-level distillation loss. Our experiments on the nuScenes and SemanticKITTI datasets show that our method outperforms strong baselines by a large margin.
We present a new open-vocabulary detection approach based on detection-oriented image-text pretraining to bridge the gap between image-level pretraining and open-vocabulary object detection. At the pretraining phase, we replace the commonly used classification architecture with the detector architecture, which better serves the region-level recognition needs of detection by enabling the detector heads to learn from noisy image-text pairs. Using only standard contrastive loss and no pseudo-labeling, our approach is a simple yet effective extension of the contrastive learning method to learn emergent object-semantic cues. In addition, we propose a shifted-window learning approach upon window attention to make the backbone representation more robust, translation-invariant, and less biased by the window pattern. On the popular LVIS open-vocabulary detection benchmark, our approach sets a new state of the art of 40.4 mask AP$_r$ using the common ViT-L backbone, significantly outperforming the best existing approach by +6.5 mask AP$_r$ at system level. On the COCO benchmark, we achieve very competitive 40.8 novel AP without pseudo labeling or weak supervision. In addition, we evaluate our approach on the transfer detection setup, where ours outperforms the baseline significantly. Visualization reveals emerging object locality from the pretraining recipes compared to the baseline. Code and models will be publicly released.
We present Contrastive Feature Masking Vision Transformer (CFM-ViT) - an image-text pretraining methodology that achieves simultaneous learning of image- and region-level representation for open-vocabulary object detection (OVD). Our approach combines the masked autoencoder (MAE) objective into the contrastive learning objective to improve the representation for localization tasks. Unlike standard MAE, we perform reconstruction in the joint image-text embedding space, rather than the pixel space as is customary with the classical MAE method, which causes the model to better learn region-level semantics. Moreover, we introduce Positional Embedding Dropout (PED) to address scale variation between image-text pretraining and detection finetuning by randomly dropping out the positional embeddings during pretraining. PED improves detection performance and enables the use of a frozen ViT backbone as a region classifier, preventing the forgetting of open-vocabulary knowledge during detection finetuning. On LVIS open-vocabulary detection benchmark, CFM-ViT achieves a state-of-the-art 33.9 AP$r$, surpassing the best approach by 7.6 points and achieves better zero-shot detection transfer. Finally, CFM-ViT acquires strong image-level representation, outperforming the state of the art on 8 out of 12 metrics on zero-shot image-text retrieval benchmarks.
Observing the close relationship among panoptic, semantic and instance segmentation tasks, we propose to train a universal multi-dataset multi-task segmentation model: DaTaSeg.We use a shared representation (mask proposals with class predictions) for all tasks. To tackle task discrepancy, we adopt different merge operations and post-processing for different tasks. We also leverage weak-supervision, allowing our segmentation model to benefit from cheaper bounding box annotations. To share knowledge across datasets, we use text embeddings from the same semantic embedding space as classifiers and share all network parameters among datasets. We train DaTaSeg on ADE semantic, COCO panoptic, and Objects365 detection datasets. DaTaSeg improves performance on all datasets, especially small-scale datasets, achieving 54.0 mIoU on ADE semantic and 53.5 PQ on COCO panoptic. DaTaSeg also enables weakly-supervised knowledge transfer on ADE panoptic and Objects365 instance segmentation. Experiments show DaTaSeg scales with the number of training datasets and enables open-vocabulary segmentation through direct transfer. In addition, we annotate an Objects365 instance segmentation set of 1,000 images and will release it as a public benchmark.
We present Region-aware Open-vocabulary Vision Transformers (RO-ViT) - a contrastive image-text pretraining recipe to bridge the gap between image-level pretraining and open-vocabulary object detection. At the pretraining phase, we propose to randomly crop and resize regions of positional embeddings instead of using the whole image positional embeddings. This better matches the use of positional embeddings at region-level in the detection finetuning phase. In addition, we replace the common softmax cross entropy loss in contrastive learning with focal loss to better learn the informative yet difficult examples. Finally, we leverage recent advances in novel object proposals to improve open-vocabulary detection finetuning. We evaluate our full model on the LVIS and COCO open-vocabulary detection benchmarks and zero-shot transfer. RO-ViT achieves a state-of-the-art 32.1 $AP_r$ on LVIS, surpassing the best existing approach by +5.8 points in addition to competitive zero-shot transfer detection. Surprisingly, RO-ViT improves the image-level representation as well and achieves the state of the art on 9 out of 12 metrics on COCO and Flickr image-text retrieval benchmarks, outperforming competitive approaches with larger models.
We present RECLIP (Resource-efficient CLIP), a simple method that minimizes computational resource footprint for CLIP (Contrastive Language Image Pretraining). Inspired by the notion of coarse-to-fine in computer vision, we leverage small images to learn from large-scale language supervision efficiently, and finetune the model with high-resolution data in the end. Since the complexity of the vision transformer heavily depends on input image size, our approach significantly reduces the training resource requirements both in theory and in practice. Using the same batch size and training epoch, RECLIP achieves highly competitive zero-shot classification and image text retrieval accuracy with 6 to 8$\times$ less computational resources and 7 to 9$\times$ fewer FLOPs than the baseline. Compared to the state-of-the-art contrastive learning methods, RECLIP demonstrates 5 to 59$\times$ training resource savings while maintaining highly competitive zero-shot classification and retrieval performance. We hope this work will pave the path for the broader research community to explore language supervised pretraining in more resource-friendly settings.
The development of language models have moved from encoder-decoder to decoder-only designs. In addition, the common knowledge has it that the two most popular multimodal tasks, the generative and contrastive tasks, tend to conflict with one another, are hard to accommodate in one architecture, and further need complex adaptations for downstream tasks. We propose a novel paradigm of training with a decoder-only model for multimodal tasks, which is surprisingly effective in jointly learning of these disparate vision-language tasks. This is done with a simple model, called MaMMUT. It consists of a single vision encoder and a text decoder, and is able to accommodate contrastive and generative learning by a novel two-pass approach on the text decoder. We demonstrate that joint learning of these diverse objectives is simple, effective, and maximizes the weight-sharing of the model across these tasks. Furthermore, the same architecture enables straightforward extensions to open-vocabulary object detection and video-language tasks. The model tackles a diverse range of tasks, while being modest in capacity. Our model achieves the state of the art on image-text and text-image retrieval, video question answering and open-vocabulary detection tasks, outperforming much larger and more extensively trained foundational models. It shows very competitive results on VQA and Video Captioning, especially considering its capacity. Ablations confirm the flexibility and advantages of our approach.
We present a simple approach which can turn a ViT encoder into an efficient video model, which can seamlessly work with both image and video inputs. By sparsely sampling the inputs, the model is able to do training and inference from both inputs. The model is easily scalable and can be adapted to large-scale pre-trained ViTs without requiring full finetuning. The model achieves SOTA results and the code will be open-sourced.
We present F-VLM, a simple open-vocabulary object detection method built upon Frozen Vision and Language Models. F-VLM simplifies the current multi-stage training pipeline by eliminating the need for knowledge distillation or detection-tailored pretraining. Surprisingly, we observe that a frozen VLM: 1) retains the locality-sensitive features necessary for detection, and 2) is a strong region classifier. We finetune only the detector head and combine the detector and VLM outputs for each region at inference time. F-VLM shows compelling scaling behavior and achieves +6.5 mask AP improvement over the previous state of the art on novel categories of LVIS open-vocabulary detection benchmark. In addition, we demonstrate very competitive results on COCO open-vocabulary detection benchmark and cross-dataset transfer detection, in addition to significant training speed-up and compute savings. Code will be released.
Effective scaling and a flexible task interface enable large language models to excel at many tasks. PaLI (Pathways Language and Image model) extends this approach to the joint modeling of language and vision. PaLI generates text based on visual and textual inputs, and with this interface performs many vision, language, and multimodal tasks, in many languages. To train PaLI, we make use of large pretrained encoder-decoder language models and Vision Transformers (ViTs). This allows us to capitalize on their existing capabilities and leverage the substantial cost of training them. We find that joint scaling of the vision and language components is important. Since existing Transformers for language are much larger than their vision counterparts, we train the largest ViT to date (ViT-e) to quantify the benefits from even larger-capacity vision models. To train PaLI, we create a large multilingual mix of pretraining tasks, based on a new image-text training set containing 10B images and texts in over 100 languages. PaLI achieves state-of-the-art in multiple vision and language tasks (such as captioning, visual question-answering, scene-text understanding), while retaining a simple, modular, and scalable design.