Recent advances in machine learning have shown that Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) can improve machine learning models and align them with human preferences. Although very successful for Large Language Models (LLMs), these advancements have not had a comparable impact in research for autonomous vehicles -- where alignment with human expectations can be imperative. In this paper, we propose to adapt similar RL-based methods to unsupervised object discovery, i.e. learning to detect objects from LiDAR points without any training labels. Instead of labels, we use simple heuristics to mimic human feedback. More explicitly, we combine multiple heuristics into a simple reward function that positively correlates its score with bounding box accuracy, i.e., boxes containing objects are scored higher than those without. We start from the detector's own predictions to explore the space and reinforce boxes with high rewards through gradient updates. Empirically, we demonstrate that our approach is not only more accurate, but also orders of magnitudes faster to train compared to prior works on object discovery.
Unsupervised monocular depth estimation techniques have demonstrated encouraging results but typically assume that the scene is static. These techniques suffer when trained on dynamical scenes, where apparent object motion can equally be explained by hypothesizing the object's independent motion, or by altering its depth. This ambiguity causes depth estimators to predict erroneous depth for moving objects. To resolve this issue, we introduce Dynamo-Depth, an unifying approach that disambiguates dynamical motion by jointly learning monocular depth, 3D independent flow field, and motion segmentation from unlabeled monocular videos. Specifically, we offer our key insight that a good initial estimation of motion segmentation is sufficient for jointly learning depth and independent motion despite the fundamental underlying ambiguity. Our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on monocular depth estimation on Waymo Open and nuScenes Dataset with significant improvement in the depth of moving objects. Code and additional results are available at https://dynamo-depth.github.io.
Accurate 3D object detection and understanding for self-driving cars heavily relies on LiDAR point clouds, necessitating large amounts of labeled data to train. In this work, we introduce an innovative pre-training approach, Grounded Point Colorization (GPC), to bridge the gap between data and labels by teaching the model to colorize LiDAR point clouds, equipping it with valuable semantic cues. To tackle challenges arising from color variations and selection bias, we incorporate color as "context" by providing ground-truth colors as hints during colorization. Experimental results on the KITTI and Waymo datasets demonstrate GPC's remarkable effectiveness. Even with limited labeled data, GPC significantly improves fine-tuning performance; notably, on just 20% of the KITTI dataset, GPC outperforms training from scratch with the entire dataset. In sum, we introduce a fresh perspective on pre-training for 3D object detection, aligning the objective with the model's intended role and ultimately advancing the accuracy and efficiency of 3D object detection for autonomous vehicles.
Recent advances in generative imagery have brought forth outpainting and inpainting models that can produce high-quality, plausible image content in unknown regions, but the content these models hallucinate is necessarily inauthentic, since the models lack sufficient context about the true scene. In this work, we propose RealFill, a novel generative approach for image completion that fills in missing regions of an image with the content that should have been there. RealFill is a generative inpainting model that is personalized using only a few reference images of a scene. These reference images do not have to be aligned with the target image, and can be taken with drastically varying viewpoints, lighting conditions, camera apertures, or image styles. Once personalized, RealFill is able to complete a target image with visually compelling contents that are faithful to the original scene. We evaluate RealFill on a new image completion benchmark that covers a set of diverse and challenging scenarios, and find that it outperforms existing approaches by a large margin. See more results on our project page: https://realfill.github.io
The rapid development of 3D object detection systems for self-driving cars has significantly improved accuracy. However, these systems struggle to generalize across diverse driving environments, which can lead to safety-critical failures in detecting traffic participants. To address this, we propose a method that utilizes unlabeled repeated traversals of multiple locations to adapt object detectors to new driving environments. By incorporating statistics computed from repeated LiDAR scans, we guide the adaptation process effectively. Our approach enhances LiDAR-based detection models using spatial quantized historical features and introduces a lightweight regression head to leverage the statistics for feature regularization. Additionally, we leverage the statistics for a novel self-training process to stabilize the training. The framework is detector model-agnostic and experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate significant improvements, achieving up to a 20-point performance gain, especially in detecting pedestrians and distant objects. Code is available at https://github.com/zhangtravis/Hist-DA.
We consider the visual disambiguation task of determining whether a pair of visually similar images depict the same or distinct 3D surfaces (e.g., the same or opposite sides of a symmetric building). Illusory image matches, where two images observe distinct but visually similar 3D surfaces, can be challenging for humans to differentiate, and can also lead 3D reconstruction algorithms to produce erroneous results. We propose a learning-based approach to visual disambiguation, formulating it as a binary classification task on image pairs. To that end, we introduce a new dataset for this problem, Doppelgangers, which includes image pairs of similar structures with ground truth labels. We also design a network architecture that takes the spatial distribution of local keypoints and matches as input, allowing for better reasoning about both local and global cues. Our evaluation shows that our method can distinguish illusory matches in difficult cases, and can be integrated into SfM pipelines to produce correct, disambiguated 3D reconstructions. See our project page for our code, datasets, and more results: http://doppelgangers-3d.github.io/.
We present a new test-time optimization method for estimating dense and long-range motion from a video sequence. Prior optical flow or particle video tracking algorithms typically operate within limited temporal windows, struggling to track through occlusions and maintain global consistency of estimated motion trajectories. We propose a complete and globally consistent motion representation, dubbed OmniMotion, that allows for accurate, full-length motion estimation of every pixel in a video. OmniMotion represents a video using a quasi-3D canonical volume and performs pixel-wise tracking via bijections between local and canonical space. This representation allows us to ensure global consistency, track through occlusions, and model any combination of camera and object motion. Extensive evaluations on the TAP-Vid benchmark and real-world footage show that our approach outperforms prior state-of-the-art methods by a large margin both quantitatively and qualitatively. See our project page for more results: http://omnimotion.github.io/
Finding correspondences between images is a fundamental problem in computer vision. In this paper, we show that correspondence emerges in image diffusion models without any explicit supervision. We propose a simple strategy to extract this implicit knowledge out of diffusion networks as image features, namely DIffusion FeaTures (DIFT), and use them to establish correspondences between real images. Without any additional fine-tuning or supervision on the task-specific data or annotations, DIFT is able to outperform both weakly-supervised methods and competitive off-the-shelf features in identifying semantic, geometric, and temporal correspondences. Particularly for semantic correspondence, DIFT from Stable Diffusion is able to outperform DINO and OpenCLIP by 19 and 14 accuracy points respectively on the challenging SPair-71k benchmark. It even outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised methods on 9 out of 18 categories while remaining on par for the overall performance. Project page: https://diffusionfeatures.github.io
We address the challenge of getting efficient yet accurate recognition systems with limited labels. While recognition models improve with model size and amount of data, many specialized applications of computer vision have severe resource constraints both during training and inference. Transfer learning is an effective solution for training with few labels, however often at the expense of a computationally costly fine-tuning of large base models. We propose to mitigate this unpleasant trade-off between compute and accuracy via semi-supervised cross-domain distillation from a set of diverse source models. Initially, we show how to use task similarity metrics to select a single suitable source model to distill from, and that a good selection process is imperative for good downstream performance of a target model. We dub this approach DistillNearest. Though effective, DistillNearest assumes a single source model matches the target task, which is not always the case. To alleviate this, we propose a weighted multi-source distillation method to distill multiple source models trained on different domains weighted by their relevance for the target task into a single efficient model (named DistillWeighted). Our methods need no access to source data, and merely need features and pseudo-labels of the source models. When the goal is accurate recognition under computational constraints, both DistillNearest and DistillWeighted approaches outperform both transfer learning from strong ImageNet initializations as well as state-of-the-art semi-supervised techniques such as FixMatch. Averaged over 8 diverse target tasks our multi-source method outperforms the baselines by 5.6%-points and 4.5%-points, respectively.