Retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) is a powerful technique to facilitate language model with proprietary and private data, where data privacy is a pivotal concern. Whereas extensive research has demonstrated the privacy risks of large language models (LLMs), the RAG technique could potentially reshape the inherent behaviors of LLM generation, posing new privacy issues that are currently under-explored. In this work, we conduct extensive empirical studies with novel attack methods, which demonstrate the vulnerability of RAG systems on leaking the private retrieval database. Despite the new risk brought by RAG on the retrieval data, we further reveal that RAG can mitigate the leakage of the LLMs' training data. Overall, we provide new insights in this paper for privacy protection of retrieval-augmented LLMs, which benefit both LLMs and RAG systems builders. Our code is available at https://github.com/phycholosogy/RAG-privacy.
Despite their success at many natural language processing (NLP) tasks, large language models (LLMs) still struggle to effectively leverage knowledge for knowledge-intensive tasks, manifesting limitations such as generating incomplete, non-factual, or illogical answers. These limitations stem from inadequate knowledge awareness of LLMs during vanilla fine-tuning. To address these problems, we propose a knowledge-aware fine-tuning (KnowTuning) method to explicitly and implicitly improve the knowledge awareness of LLMs. We devise an explicit knowledge-aware generation stage to train LLMs to explicitly identify knowledge triples in answers. We also propose an implicit knowledge-aware comparison stage to train LLMs to implicitly distinguish between reliable and unreliable knowledge, in three aspects: completeness, factuality, and logicality. Extensive experiments on both generic and medical question answering (QA) datasets confirm the effectiveness of KnowTuning, through automatic and human evaluations, across various sizes of LLMs. Finally, we demonstrate that the improvements of KnowTuning generalize to unseen QA datasets.
Large Language Models (LLMs) face several challenges, including the tendency to produce incorrect outputs, known as hallucination. An effective solution is verifiable text generation, which prompts LLMs to generate content with citations for accuracy verification. However, verifiable text generation is non-trivial due to the focus-shifting phenomenon, the dilemma between the precision and scope in document retrieval, and the intricate reasoning required to discern the relationship between the claim and citations. In this paper, we present VTG, an innovative approach for Verifiable Text Generation with evolving memory and self-reflection. VTG maintains evolving long short-term memory to retain both valuable documents and up-to-date documents. Active retrieval and diverse query generation are utilized to enhance both the precision and scope of the retrieved documents. Furthermore, VTG features a two-tier verifier and an evidence finder, enabling rethinking and reflection on the relationship between the claim and citations. We conduct extensive experiments on five datasets across three knowledge-intensive tasks and the results reveal that VTG significantly outperforms existing baselines.
Heterogeneous Information Networks (HINs), which consist of various types of nodes and edges, have recently demonstrated excellent performance in graph mining. However, most existing heterogeneous graph neural networks (HGNNs) ignore the problems of missing attributes, inaccurate attributes and scarce labels for nodes, which limits their expressiveness. In this paper, we propose a generative self-supervised model SHAVA to address these issues simultaneously. Specifically, SHAVA first initializes all the nodes in the graph with a low-dimensional representation matrix. After that, based on the variational graph autoencoder framework, SHAVA learns both node-level and attribute-level embeddings in the encoder, which can provide fine-grained semantic information to construct node attributes. In the decoder, SHAVA reconstructs both links and attributes. Instead of directly reconstructing raw features for attributed nodes, SHAVA generates the initial low-dimensional representation matrix for all the nodes, based on which raw features of attributed nodes are further reconstructed to leverage accurate attributes. In this way, SHAVA can not only complete informative features for non-attributed nodes, but rectify inaccurate ones for attributed nodes. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to show the superiority of SHAVA in tackling HINs with missing and inaccurate attributes.
Heterogeneous graph neural networks (HGNNs) have recently shown impressive capability in modeling heterogeneous graphs that are ubiquitous in real-world applications. Due to the diversity of attributes of nodes in different types, most existing models first align nodes by mapping them into the same low-dimensional space. However, in this way, they lose the type information of nodes. In addition, most of them only consider the interactions between nodes while neglecting the high-order information behind the latent interactions among different node features. To address these problems, in this paper, we propose a novel heterogeneous graph model MULAN, including two major components, i.e., a type-aware encoder and a dimension-aware encoder. Specifically, the type-aware encoder compensates for the loss of node type information and better leverages graph heterogeneity in learning node representations. Built upon transformer architecture, the dimension-aware encoder is capable of capturing the latent interactions among the diverse node features. With these components, the information of graph heterogeneity, node features and graph structure can be comprehensively encoded in node representations. We conduct extensive experiments on six heterogeneous benchmark datasets, which demonstrates the superiority of MULAN over other state-of-the-art competitors and also shows that MULAN is efficient.
Recent studies have demonstrated the great potential of Large Language Models (LLMs) serving as zero-shot relevance rankers. The typical approach involves making comparisons between pairs or lists of documents. Although effective, these listwise and pairwise methods are not efficient and also heavily rely on intricate prompt engineering. To tackle this problem, we introduce a novel instruction distillation method. The key idea is to distill the pairwise ranking ability of open-sourced LLMs to a simpler but more efficient pointwise ranking. Specifically, given the same LLM, we first rank documents using the effective pairwise approach with complex instructions, and then distill the teacher predictions to the pointwise approach with simpler instructions. Evaluation results on the BEIR, TREC, and ReDial datasets demonstrate that instruction distillation can improve efficiency by 10 to 100x and also enhance the ranking performance of LLMs. Furthermore, our approach surpasses the performance of existing supervised methods like monoT5 and is on par with the state-of-the-art zero-shot methods. The code to reproduce our results is available at www.github.com/sunnweiwei/RankGPT.
Query expansion is a commonly-used technique in many search systems to better represent users' information needs with additional query terms. Existing studies for this task usually propose to expand a query with retrieved or generated contextual documents. However, both types of methods have clear limitations. For retrieval-based methods, the documents retrieved with the original query might not be accurate enough to reveal the search intent, especially when the query is brief or ambiguous. For generation-based methods, existing models can hardly be trained or aligned on a particular corpus, due to the lack of corpus-specific labeled data. In this paper, we propose a novel Large Language Model (LLM) based mutual verification framework for query expansion, which alleviates the aforementioned limitations. Specifically, we first design a query-query-document generation pipeline, which can effectively leverage the contextual knowledge encoded in LLMs to generate sub-queries and corresponding documents from multiple perspectives. Next, we employ a mutual verification method for both generated and retrieved contextual documents, where 1) retrieved documents are filtered with the external contextual knowledge in generated documents, and 2) generated documents are filtered with the corpus-specific knowledge in retrieved documents. Overall, the proposed method allows retrieved and generated documents to complement each other to finalize a better query expansion. We conduct extensive experiments on three information retrieval datasets, i.e., TREC-DL-2020, TREC-COVID, and MSMARCO. The results demonstrate that our method outperforms other baselines significantly.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown great potential in Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, recent literature reveals that LLMs generate nonfactual responses intermittently, which impedes the LLMs' reliability for further utilization. In this paper, we propose a novel self-detection method to detect which questions that a LLM does not know that are prone to generate nonfactual results. Specifically, we first diversify the textual expressions for a given question and collect the corresponding answers. Then we examine the divergencies between the generated answers to identify the questions that the model may generate falsehoods. All of the above steps can be accomplished by prompting the LLMs themselves without referring to any other external resources. We conduct comprehensive experiments and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on recently released LLMs, e.g., Vicuna, ChatGPT, and GPT-4.
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are powerful in learning semantics of graph data. Recently, a new paradigm "pre-train, prompt" has shown promising results in adapting GNNs to various tasks with less supervised data. The success of such paradigm can be attributed to the more consistent objectives of pre-training and task-oriented prompt tuning, where the pre-trained knowledge can be effectively transferred to downstream tasks. However, an overlooked issue of existing studies is that the structure information of graph is usually exploited during pre-training for learning node representations, while neglected in the prompt tuning stage for learning task-specific parameters. To bridge this gap, we propose a novel structure-based prompting method for GNNs, namely SAP, which consistently exploits structure information in both pre-training and prompt tuning stages. In particular, SAP 1) employs a dual-view contrastive learning to align the latent semantic spaces of node attributes and graph structure, and 2) incorporates structure information in prompted graph to elicit more pre-trained knowledge in prompt tuning. We conduct extensive experiments on node classification and graph classification tasks to show the effectiveness of SAP. Moreover, we show that SAP can lead to better performance in more challenging few-shot scenarios on both homophilous and heterophilous graphs.
Dialogue assessment plays a critical role in the development of open-domain dialogue systems. Existing work are uncapable of providing an end-to-end and human-epistemic assessment dataset, while they only provide sub-metrics like coherence or the dialogues are conversed between annotators far from real user settings. In this paper, we release a large-scale dialogue quality assessment dataset (DiQAD), for automatically assessing open-domain dialogue quality. Specifically, we (1) establish the assessment criteria based on the dimensions conforming to human judgements on dialogue qualities, and (2) annotate large-scale dialogues that conversed between real users based on these annotation criteria, which contains around 100,000 dialogues. We conduct several experiments and report the performances of the baselines as the benchmark on DiQAD. The dataset is openly accessible at https://github.com/yukunZhao/Dataset_Dialogue_quality_evaluation.