We aim for accurate and efficient line landmark detection for valet parking, which is a long-standing yet unsolved problem in autonomous driving. To this end, we present a deep line landmark detection system where we carefully design the modules to be lightweight. Specifically, we first empirically design four general line landmarks including three physical lines and one novel mental line. The four line landmarks are effective for valet parking. We then develop a deep network (LineMarkNet) to detect line landmarks from surround-view cameras where we, via the pre-calibrated homography, fuse context from four separate cameras into the unified bird-eye-view (BEV) space, specifically we fuse the surroundview features and BEV features, then employ the multi-task decoder to detect multiple line landmarks where we apply the center-based strategy for object detection task, and design our graph transformer to enhance the vision transformer with hierarchical level graph reasoning for semantic segmentation task. At last, we further parameterize the detected line landmarks (e.g., intercept-slope form) whereby a novel filtering backend incorporates temporal and multi-view consistency to achieve smooth and stable detection. Moreover, we annotate a large-scale dataset to validate our method. Experimental results show that our framework achieves the enhanced performance compared with several line detection methods and validate the multi-task network's efficiency about the real-time line landmark detection on the Qualcomm 820A platform while meantime keeps superior accuracy, with our deep line landmark detection system.
Evaluating open-domain dialogue systems is challenging for reasons such as the one-to-many problem, i.e., many appropriate responses other than just the golden response. As of now, automatic evaluation methods need better consistency with humans, while reliable human evaluation can be time- and cost-intensive. To this end, we propose the Reference-Assisted Dialogue Evaluation (RADE) approach under the multi-task learning framework, which leverages the pre-created utterance as reference other than the gold response to relief the one-to-many problem. Specifically, RADE explicitly compares reference and the candidate response to predict their overall scores. Moreover, an auxiliary response generation task enhances prediction via a shared encoder. To support RADE, we extend three datasets with additional rated responses other than just a golden response by human annotation. Experiments on our three datasets and two existing benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, where Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall correlations with human evaluation outperform state-of-the-art baselines.
This paper presents a corpus-based analysis of argument structure errors in learner Chinese. The data for analysis includes sentences produced by language learners as well as their corrections by native speakers. We couple the data with semantic role labeling annotations that are manually created by two senior students whose majors are both Applied Linguistics. The annotation procedure is guided by the Chinese PropBank specification, which is originally developed to cover first language phenomena. Nevertheless, we find that it is quite comprehensive for handling second language phenomena. The inter-annotator agreement is rather high, suggesting the understandability of learner texts to native speakers. Based on our annotations, we present a preliminary analysis of competence errors related to argument structure. In particular, speech errors related to word order, word selection, lack of proposition, and argument-adjunct confounding are discussed.
In open-domain question answering, due to the ambiguity of questions, multiple plausible answers may exist. To provide feasible answers to an ambiguous question, one approach is to directly predict all valid answers, but this can struggle with balancing relevance and diversity. An alternative is to gather candidate answers and aggregate them, but this method can be computationally costly and may neglect dependencies among answers. In this paper, we present AmbigPrompt to address the imperfections of existing approaches to answering ambiguous questions. Specifically, we integrate an answering model with a prompting model in an iterative manner. The prompting model adaptively tracks the reading process and progressively triggers the answering model to compose distinct and relevant answers. Additionally, we develop a task-specific post-pretraining approach for both the answering model and the prompting model, which greatly improves the performance of our framework. Empirical studies on two commonly-used open benchmarks show that AmbigPrompt achieves state-of-the-art or competitive results while using less memory and having a lower inference latency than competing approaches. Additionally, AmbigPrompt also performs well in low-resource settings. The code are available at: https://github.com/sunnweiwei/AmbigPrompt.
Explanations in conventional recommender systems have demonstrated benefits in helping the user understand the rationality of the recommendations and improving the system's efficiency, transparency, and trustworthiness. In the conversational environment, multiple contextualized explanations need to be generated, which poses further challenges for explanations. To better measure explainability in conversational recommender systems (CRS), we propose ten evaluation perspectives based on concepts from conventional recommender systems together with the characteristics of CRS. We assess five existing CRS benchmark datasets using these metrics and observe the necessity of improving the explanation quality of CRS. To achieve this, we conduct manual and automatic approaches to extend these dialogues and construct a new CRS dataset, namely Explainable Recommendation Dialogues (E-ReDial). It includes 756 dialogues with over 2,000 high-quality rewritten explanations. We compare two baseline approaches to perform explanation generation based on E-ReDial. Experimental results suggest that models trained on E-ReDial can significantly improve explainability while introducing knowledge into the models can further improve the performance. GPT-3 in the in-context learning setting can generate more realistic and diverse movie descriptions. In contrast, T5 training on E-ReDial can better generate clear reasons for recommendations based on user preferences. E-ReDial is available at https://github.com/Superbooming/E-ReDial.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated a remarkable ability to generalize zero-shot to various language-related tasks. This paper focuses on the study of exploring generative LLMs such as ChatGPT and GPT-4 for relevance ranking in Information Retrieval (IR). Surprisingly, our experiments reveal that properly instructed ChatGPT and GPT-4 can deliver competitive, even superior results than supervised methods on popular IR benchmarks. Notably, GPT-4 outperforms the fully fine-tuned monoT5-3B on MS MARCO by an average of 2.7 nDCG on TREC datasets, an average of 2.3 nDCG on eight BEIR datasets, and an average of 2.7 nDCG on ten low-resource languages Mr.TyDi. Subsequently, we delve into the potential for distilling the ranking capabilities of ChatGPT into a specialized model. Our small specialized model that trained on 10K ChatGPT generated data outperforms monoT5 trained on 400K annotated MS MARCO data on BEIR. The code to reproduce our results is available at www.github.com/sunnweiwei/RankGPT
Knowledge selection is the key in knowledge-grounded dialogues (KGD), which aims to select an appropriate knowledge snippet to be used in the utterance based on dialogue history. Previous studies mainly employ the classification approach to classify each candidate snippet as "relevant" or "irrelevant" independently. However, such approaches neglect the interactions between snippets, leading to difficulties in inferring the meaning of snippets. Moreover, they lack modeling of the discourse structure of dialogue-knowledge interactions. We propose a simple yet effective generative approach for knowledge selection, called GenKS. GenKS learns to select snippets by generating their identifiers with a sequence-to-sequence model. GenKS therefore captures intra-knowledge interaction inherently through attention mechanisms. Meanwhile, we devise a hyperlink mechanism to model the dialogue-knowledge interactions explicitly. We conduct experiments on three benchmark datasets, and verify GenKS achieves the best results on both knowledge selection and response generation.
Conventional document retrieval techniques are mainly based on the index-retrieve paradigm. It is challenging to optimize pipelines based on this paradigm in an end-to-end manner. As an alternative, generative retrieval represents documents as identifiers (docid) and retrieves documents by generating docids, enabling end-to-end modeling of document retrieval tasks. However, it is an open question how one should define the document identifiers. Current approaches to the task of defining document identifiers rely on fixed rule-based docids, such as the title of a document or the result of clustering BERT embeddings, which often fail to capture the complete semantic information of a document. We propose GenRet, a document tokenization learning method to address the challenge of defining document identifiers for generative retrieval. GenRet learns to tokenize documents into short discrete representations (i.e., docids) via a discrete auto-encoding approach. Three components are included in GenRet: (i) a tokenization model that produces docids for documents; (ii) a reconstruction model that learns to reconstruct a document based on a docid; and (iii) a sequence-to-sequence retrieval model that generates relevant document identifiers directly for a designated query. By using an auto-encoding framework, GenRet learns semantic docids in a fully end-to-end manner. We also develop a progressive training scheme to capture the autoregressive nature of docids and to stabilize training. We conduct experiments on the NQ320K, MS MARCO, and BEIR datasets to assess the effectiveness of GenRet. GenRet establishes the new state-of-the-art on the NQ320K dataset. Especially, compared to generative retrieval baselines, GenRet can achieve significant improvements on the unseen documents. GenRet also outperforms comparable baselines on MS MARCO and BEIR, demonstrating the method's generalizability.
Pre-trained language models (LMs) store knowledge in their parameters and can generate informative responses when used in conversational systems. However, LMs suffer from the problem of "hallucination:" they may generate plausible-looking statements that are irrelevant or factually incorrect. To address this problem, we propose a contrastive learning scheme, named MixCL. A novel mixed contrastive objective is proposed to explicitly optimize the implicit knowledge elicitation process of LMs, and thus reduce their hallucination in conversations. We also examine negative sampling strategies of retrieved hard negatives and model-generated negatives. We conduct experiments on Wizard-of-Wikipedia, a public, open-domain knowledge-grounded dialogue benchmark, and assess the effectiveness of MixCL. MixCL effectively reduces the hallucination of LMs in conversations and achieves the highest performance among LM-based dialogue agents in terms of relevancy and factuality. We show that MixCL achieves comparable performance to state-of-the-art KB-based approaches while enjoying notable advantages in terms of efficiency and scalability.