Recommendation algorithms forecast user preferences by correlating user and item representations derived from historical interaction patterns. In pursuit of enhanced performance, many methods focus on learning robust and independent representations by disentangling the intricate factors within interaction data across various modalities in an unsupervised manner. However, such an approach obfuscates the discernment of how specific factors (e.g., category or brand) influence the outcomes, making it challenging to regulate their effects. In response to this challenge, we introduce a novel method called Attribute-Driven Disentangled Representation Learning (short for AD-DRL), which explicitly incorporates attributes from different modalities into the disentangled representation learning process. By assigning a specific attribute to each factor in multimodal features, AD-DRL can disentangle the factors at both attribute and attribute-value levels. To obtain robust and independent representations for each factor associated with a specific attribute, we first disentangle the representations of features both within and across different modalities. Moreover, we further enhance the robustness of the representations by fusing the multimodal features of the same factor. Empirical evaluations conducted on three public real-world datasets substantiate the effectiveness of AD-DRL, as well as its interpretability and controllability.
Unsupervised anomaly detection (UAD) has been widely implemented in industrial and medical applications, which reduces the cost of manual annotation and improves efficiency in disease diagnosis. Recently, deep auto-encoder with its variants has demonstrated its advantages in many UAD scenarios. Training on the normal data, these models are expected to locate anomalies by producing higher reconstruction error for the abnormal areas than the normal ones. However, this assumption does not always hold because of the uncontrollable generalization capability. To solve this problem, we present LSGS, a method that builds on Vector Quantised-Variational Autoencoder (VQVAE) with a novel aggregated codebook and transformers with global attention. In this work, the VQVAE focus on feature extraction and reconstruction of images, and the transformers fit the manifold and locate anomalies in the latent space. Then, leveraging the generated encoding sequences that conform to a normal distribution, we can reconstruct a more accurate image for locating the anomalies. Experiments on various datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Visual Commonsense Reasoning (VCR) remains a significant yet challenging research problem in the realm of visual reasoning. A VCR model generally aims at answering a textual question regarding an image, followed by the rationale prediction for the preceding answering process. Though these two processes are sequential and intertwined, existing methods always consider them as two independent matching-based instances. They, therefore, ignore the pivotal relationship between the two processes, leading to sub-optimal model performance. This paper presents a novel visual attention alignment method to efficaciously handle these two processes in a unified framework. To achieve this, we first design a re-attention module for aggregating the vision attention map produced in each process. Thereafter, the resultant two sets of attention maps are carefully aligned to guide the two processes to make decisions based on the same image regions. We apply this method to both conventional attention and the recent Transformer models and carry out extensive experiments on the VCR benchmark dataset. The results demonstrate that with the attention alignment module, our method achieves a considerable improvement over the baseline methods, evidently revealing the feasibility of the coupling of the two processes as well as the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Temporal modeling is crucial for various video learning tasks. Most recent approaches employ either factorized (2D+1D) or joint (3D) spatial-temporal operations to extract temporal contexts from the input frames. While the former is more efficient in computation, the latter often obtains better performance. In this paper, we attribute this to a dilemma between the sufficiency and the efficiency of interactions among various positions in different frames. These interactions affect the extraction of task-relevant information shared among frames. To resolve this issue, we prove that frame-by-frame alignments have the potential to increase the mutual information between frame representations, thereby including more task-relevant information to boost effectiveness. Then we propose Alignment-guided Temporal Attention (ATA) to extend 1-dimensional temporal attention with parameter-free patch-level alignments between neighboring frames. It can act as a general plug-in for image backbones to conduct the action recognition task without any model-specific design. Extensive experiments on multiple benchmarks demonstrate the superiority and generality of our module.
Expanding an existing tourist photo from a partially captured scene to a full scene is one of the desired experiences for photography applications. Although photo extrapolation has been well studied, it is much more challenging to extrapolate a photo (i.e., selfie) from a narrow field of view to a wider one while maintaining a similar visual style. In this paper, we propose a factorized neural re-rendering model to produce photorealistic novel views from cluttered outdoor Internet photo collections, which enables the applications including controllable scene re-rendering, photo extrapolation and even extrapolated 3D photo generation. Specifically, we first develop a novel factorized re-rendering pipeline to handle the ambiguity in the decomposition of geometry, appearance and illumination. We also propose a composited training strategy to tackle the unexpected occlusion in Internet images. Moreover, to enhance photo-realism when extrapolating tourist photographs, we propose a novel realism augmentation process to complement appearance details, which automatically propagates the texture details from a narrow captured photo to the extrapolated neural rendered image. The experiments and photo editing examples on outdoor scenes demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method in both photo-realism and downstream applications.
Learning-based multi-view stereo (MVS) methods have made impressive progress and surpassed traditional methods in recent years. However, their accuracy and completeness are still struggling. In this paper, we propose a new method to enhance the performance of existing networks inspired by contrastive learning and feature matching. First, we propose a Contrast Matching Loss (CML), which treats the correct matching points in depth-dimension as positive sample and other points as negative samples, and computes the contrastive loss based on the similarity of features. We further propose a Weighted Focal Loss (WFL) for better classification capability, which weakens the contribution of low-confidence pixels in unimportant areas to the loss according to predicted confidence. Extensive experiments performed on DTU, Tanks and Temples and BlendedMVS datasets show our method achieves state-of-the-art performance and significant improvement over baseline network.
Visual Commonsense Reasoning (VCR), deemed as one challenging extension of the Visual Question Answering (VQA), endeavors to pursue a more high-level visual comprehension. It is composed of two indispensable processes: question answering over a given image and rationale inference for answer explanation. Over the years, a variety of methods tackling VCR have advanced the performance on the benchmark dataset. Despite significant as these methods are, they often treat the two processes in a separate manner and hence decompose the VCR into two irrelevant VQA instances. As a result, the pivotal connection between question answering and rationale inference is interrupted, rendering existing efforts less faithful on visual reasoning. To empirically study this issue, we perform some in-depth explorations in terms of both language shortcuts and generalization capability to verify the pitfalls of this treatment. Based on our findings, in this paper, we present a plug-and-play knowledge distillation enhanced framework to couple the question answering and rationale inference processes. The key contribution is the introduction of a novel branch, which serves as the bridge to conduct processes connecting. Given that our framework is model-agnostic, we apply it to the existing popular baselines and validate its effectiveness on the benchmark dataset. As detailed in the experimental results, when equipped with our framework, these baselines achieve consistent and significant performance improvements, demonstrating the viability of processes coupling, as well as the superiority of the proposed framework.
Language model pre-training based on large corpora has achieved tremendous success in terms of constructing enriched contextual representations and has led to significant performance gains on a diverse range of Natural Language Understanding (NLU) tasks. Despite the success, most current pre-trained language models, such as BERT, are trained based on single-grained tokenization, usually with fine-grained characters or sub-words, making it hard for them to learn the precise meaning of coarse-grained words and phrases. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective pre-training method named LICHEE to efficiently incorporate multi-grained information of input text. Our method can be applied to various pre-trained language models and improve their representation capability. Extensive experiments conducted on CLUE and SuperGLUE demonstrate that our method achieves comprehensive improvements on a wide variety of NLU tasks in both Chinese and English with little extra inference cost incurred, and that our best ensemble model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on CLUE benchmark competition.
* Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP
Underwater image enhancement is such an important vision task due to its significance in marine engineering and aquatic robot. It is usually work as a pre-processing step to improve the performance of high level vision tasks such as underwater object detection. Even though many previous works show the underwater image enhancement algorithms can boost the detection accuracy of the detectors, no work specially focus on investigating the relationship between these two tasks. This is mainly because existing underwater datasets lack either bounding box annotations or high quality reference images, based on which detection accuracy or image quality assessment metrics are calculated. To investigate how the underwater image enhancement methods influence the following underwater object detection tasks, in this paper, we provide a large-scale underwater object detection dataset with both bounding box annotations and high quality reference images, namely OUC dataset. The OUC dataset provides a platform for researchers to comprehensive study the influence of underwater image enhancement algorithms on the underwater object detection task.