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Xu Chen

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Phasic Content Fusing Diffusion Model with Directional Distribution Consistency for Few-Shot Model Adaption

Sep 07, 2023
Teng Hu, Jiangning Zhang, Liang Liu, Ran Yi, Siqi Kou, Haokun Zhu, Xu Chen, Yabiao Wang, Chengjie Wang, Lizhuang Ma

Training a generative model with limited number of samples is a challenging task. Current methods primarily rely on few-shot model adaption to train the network. However, in scenarios where data is extremely limited (less than 10), the generative network tends to overfit and suffers from content degradation. To address these problems, we propose a novel phasic content fusing few-shot diffusion model with directional distribution consistency loss, which targets different learning objectives at distinct training stages of the diffusion model. Specifically, we design a phasic training strategy with phasic content fusion to help our model learn content and style information when t is large, and learn local details of target domain when t is small, leading to an improvement in the capture of content, style and local details. Furthermore, we introduce a novel directional distribution consistency loss that ensures the consistency between the generated and source distributions more efficiently and stably than the prior methods, preventing our model from overfitting. Finally, we propose a cross-domain structure guidance strategy that enhances structure consistency during domain adaptation. Theoretical analysis, qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate the superiority of our approach in few-shot generative model adaption tasks compared to state-of-the-art methods. The source code is available at:

* Accepted by ICCV 2023 
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A Survey on Large Language Model based Autonomous Agents

Sep 07, 2023
Lei Wang, Chen Ma, Xueyang Feng, Zeyu Zhang, Hao Yang, Jingsen Zhang, Zhiyuan Chen, Jiakai Tang, Xu Chen, Yankai Lin, Wayne Xin Zhao, Zhewei Wei, Ji-Rong Wen

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Autonomous agents have long been a prominent research focus in both academic and industry communities. Previous research in this field often focuses on training agents with limited knowledge within isolated environments, which diverges significantly from human learning processes, and thus makes the agents hard to achieve human-like decisions. Recently, through the acquisition of vast amounts of web knowledge, large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable potential in achieving human-level intelligence. This has sparked an upsurge in studies investigating LLM-based autonomous agents. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of these studies, delivering a systematic review of the field of LLM-based autonomous agents from a holistic perspective. More specifically, we first discuss the construction of LLM-based autonomous agents, for which we propose a unified framework that encompasses a majority of the previous work. Then, we present a comprehensive overview of the diverse applications of LLM-based autonomous agents in the fields of social science, natural science, and engineering. Finally, we delve into the evaluation strategies commonly used for LLM-based autonomous agents. Based on the previous studies, we also present several challenges and future directions in this field. To keep track of this field and continuously update our survey, we maintain a repository of relevant references at

* 35 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables 
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Roulette: A Semantic Privacy-Preserving Device-Edge Collaborative Inference Framework for Deep Learning Classification Tasks

Sep 06, 2023
Jingyi Li, Guocheng Liao, Lin Chen, Xu Chen

Deep learning classifiers are crucial in the age of artificial intelligence. The device-edge-based collaborative inference has been widely adopted as an efficient framework for promoting its applications in IoT and 5G/6G networks. However, it suffers from accuracy degradation under non-i.i.d. data distribution and privacy disclosure. For accuracy degradation, direct use of transfer learning and split learning is high cost and privacy issues remain. For privacy disclosure, cryptography-based approaches lead to a huge overhead. Other lightweight methods assume that the ground truth is non-sensitive and can be exposed. But for many applications, the ground truth is the user's crucial privacy-sensitive information. In this paper, we propose a framework of Roulette, which is a task-oriented semantic privacy-preserving collaborative inference framework for deep learning classifiers. More than input data, we treat the ground truth of the data as private information. We develop a novel paradigm of split learning where the back-end DNN is frozen and the front-end DNN is retrained to be both a feature extractor and an encryptor. Moreover, we provide a differential privacy guarantee and analyze the hardness of ground truth inference attacks. To validate the proposed Roulette, we conduct extensive performance evaluations using realistic datasets, which demonstrate that Roulette can effectively defend against various attacks and meanwhile achieve good model accuracy. In a situation where the non-i.i.d. is very severe, Roulette improves the inference accuracy by 21\% averaged over benchmarks, while making the accuracy of discrimination attacks almost equivalent to random guessing.

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FedDD: Toward Communication-efficient Federated Learning with Differential Parameter Dropout

Sep 01, 2023
Zhiying Feng, Xu Chen, Qiong Wu, Wen Wu, Xiaoxi Zhang, Qianyi Huang

Federated Learning (FL) requires frequent exchange of model parameters, which leads to long communication delay, especially when the network environments of clients vary greatly. Moreover, the parameter server needs to wait for the slowest client (i.e., straggler, which may have the largest model size, lowest computing capability or worst network condition) to upload parameters, which may significantly degrade the communication efficiency. Commonly-used client selection methods such as partial client selection would lead to the waste of computing resources and weaken the generalization of the global model. To tackle this problem, along a different line, in this paper, we advocate the approach of model parameter dropout instead of client selection, and accordingly propose a novel framework of Federated learning scheme with Differential parameter Dropout (FedDD). FedDD consists of two key modules: dropout rate allocation and uploaded parameter selection, which will optimize the model parameter uploading ratios tailored to different clients' heterogeneous conditions and also select the proper set of important model parameters for uploading subject to clients' dropout rate constraints. Specifically, the dropout rate allocation is formulated as a convex optimization problem, taking system heterogeneity, data heterogeneity, and model heterogeneity among clients into consideration. The uploaded parameter selection strategy prioritizes on eliciting important parameters for uploading to speedup convergence. Furthermore, we theoretically analyze the convergence of the proposed FedDD scheme. Extensive performance evaluations demonstrate that the proposed FedDD scheme can achieve outstanding performances in both communication efficiency and model convergence, and also possesses a strong generalization capability to data of rare classes.

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BeeFlow: Behavior Tree-based Serverless Workflow Modeling and Scheduling for Resource-Constrained Edge Clusters

Aug 31, 2023
Ke Luo, Tao Ouyang, Zhi Zhou, Xu Chen

Serverless computing has gained popularity in edge computing due to its flexible features, including the pay-per-use pricing model, auto-scaling capabilities, and multi-tenancy support. Complex Serverless-based applications typically rely on Serverless workflows (also known as Serverless function orchestration) to express task execution logic, and numerous application- and system-level optimization techniques have been developed for Serverless workflow scheduling. However, there has been limited exploration of optimizing Serverless workflow scheduling in edge computing systems, particularly in high-density, resource-constrained environments such as system-on-chip clusters and single-board-computer clusters. In this work, we discover that existing Serverless workflow scheduling techniques typically assume models with limited expressiveness and cause significant resource contention. To address these issues, we propose modeling Serverless workflows using behavior trees, a novel and fundamentally different approach from existing directed-acyclic-graph- and state machine-based models. Behavior tree-based modeling allows for easy analysis without compromising workflow expressiveness. We further present observations derived from the inherent tree structure of behavior trees for contention-free function collections and awareness of exact and empirical concurrent function invocations. Based on these observations, we introduce BeeFlow, a behavior tree-based Serverless workflow system tailored for resource-constrained edge clusters. Experimental results demonstrate that BeeFlow achieves up to 3.2X speedup in a high-density, resource-constrained edge testbed and 2.5X speedup in a high-profile cloud testbed, compared with the state-of-the-art.

* Accepted by Journal of Systems Architecture 
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ViCo: Engaging Video Comment Generation with Human Preference Rewards

Aug 22, 2023
Yuchong Sun, Bei Liu, Xu Chen, Ruihua Song, Jianlong Fu

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Engaging video comments play an important role in video social media, as they are the carrier of feelings, thoughts, or humor of the audience. Preliminary works have made initial exploration for video comment generation by adopting caption-style encoder-decoder models. However, comment generation presents some unique challenges distinct from caption generation, which makes these methods somewhat less effective at generating engaging comments. In contrast to the objective and descriptive nature of captions, comments tend to be inherently subjective, making it hard to quantify and evaluate the engagement of comments. Furthermore, the scarcity of truly engaging comments brings difficulty to collecting enough high-quality training examples. In this paper, we propose ViCo with three novel designs to tackle the above challenges for generating engaging Video Comments. Firstly, to quantify the engagement of comments, we utilize the number of "likes" each comment receives as a proxy of human preference after an appropriate debiasing procedure. Secondly, to automatically evaluate the engagement of comments, we train a reward model to align its judgment to the above proxy. Our user studies indicate that this reward model effectively aligns with human judgments. Lastly, to alleviate the scarcity of high-quality comments, an initial generator is trained on readily available but noisy data to generate comments. Then the reward model is employed to offer feedback on the generated comments, thus optimizing the initial generator. To facilitate the research of video commenting, we collect a large video comment-dataset (ViCo-20k) with rich metadata from a popular video website. Experiments on ViCo-20k show that the comments generated by our ViCo model exhibit the best performance in terms of both quantitative and qualitative results, particularly when engagement is considered.

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Cloth2Tex: A Customized Cloth Texture Generation Pipeline for 3D Virtual Try-On

Aug 08, 2023
Daiheng Gao, Xu Chen, Xindi Zhang, Qi Wang, Ke Sun, Bang Zhang, Liefeng Bo, Qixing Huang

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Fabricating and designing 3D garments has become extremely demanding with the increasing need for synthesizing realistic dressed persons for a variety of applications, e.g. 3D virtual try-on, digitalization of 2D clothes into 3D apparel, and cloth animation. It thus necessitates a simple and straightforward pipeline to obtain high-quality texture from simple input, such as 2D reference images. Since traditional warping-based texture generation methods require a significant number of control points to be manually selected for each type of garment, which can be a time-consuming and tedious process. We propose a novel method, called Cloth2Tex, which eliminates the human burden in this process. Cloth2Tex is a self-supervised method that generates texture maps with reasonable layout and structural consistency. Another key feature of Cloth2Tex is that it can be used to support high-fidelity texture inpainting. This is done by combining Cloth2Tex with a prevailing latent diffusion model. We evaluate our approach both qualitatively and quantitatively and demonstrate that Cloth2Tex can generate high-quality texture maps and achieve the best visual effects in comparison to other methods. Project page:

* 15 pages, 15 figures 
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A3D: Adaptive, Accurate, and Autonomous Navigation for Edge-Assisted Drones

Jul 19, 2023
Liekang Zeng, Haowei Chen, Daipeng Feng, Xiaoxi Zhang, Xu Chen

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Accurate navigation is of paramount importance to ensure flight safety and efficiency for autonomous drones. Recent research starts to use Deep Neural Networks to enhance drone navigation given their remarkable predictive capability for visual perception. However, existing solutions either run DNN inference tasks on drones in situ, impeded by the limited onboard resource, or offload the computation to external servers which may incur large network latency. Few works consider jointly optimizing the offloading decisions along with image transmission configurations and adapting them on the fly. In this paper, we propose A3D, an edge server assisted drone navigation framework that can dynamically adjust task execution location, input resolution, and image compression ratio in order to achieve low inference latency, high prediction accuracy, and long flight distances. Specifically, we first augment state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks for drone navigation and define a novel metric called Quality of Navigation as our optimization objective which can effectively capture the above goals. We then design a deep reinforcement learning based neural scheduler at the drone side for which an information encoder is devised to reshape the state features and thus improve its learning ability. To further support simultaneous multi-drone serving, we extend the edge server design by developing a network-aware resource allocation algorithm, which allows provisioning containerized resources aligned with drones' demand. We finally implement a proof-of-concept prototype with realistic devices and validate its performance in a real-world campus scene, as well as a simulation environment for thorough evaluation upon AirSim. Extensive experimental results show that A3D can reduce end-to-end latency by 28.06% and extend the flight distance by up to 27.28% compared with non-adaptive solutions.

* Accepted by IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 
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