Large language models hold significant potential for integrating various data types, such as text documents and database records, for advanced analytics. However, blending text and numerical data presents substantial challenges. LLMs need to process and cross-reference entities and numbers, handle data inconsistencies and redundancies, and develop planning capabilities such as building a working memory for managing complex data queries. In this paper, we introduce four novel tasks centered around sports data analytics to evaluate the numerical reasoning and information fusion capabilities of LLMs. These tasks involve providing LLMs with detailed, play-by-play sports game descriptions, then challenging them with adversarial scenarios such as new game rules, longer durations, scrambled narratives, and analyzing key statistics in game summaries. We conduct extensive experiments on NBA and NFL games to assess the performance of LLMs on these tasks. Our benchmark, SportsMetrics, introduces a new mechanism for assessing LLMs' numerical reasoning and fusion skills.
Federated learning (FL) is a machine learning paradigm that allows multiple clients to collaboratively train a shared model while keeping their data on-premise. However, the straggler issue, due to slow clients, often hinders the efficiency and scalability of FL. This paper presents FedCore, an algorithm that innovatively tackles the straggler problem via the decentralized selection of coresets, representative subsets of a dataset. Contrary to existing centralized coreset methods, FedCore creates coresets directly on each client in a distributed manner, ensuring privacy preservation in FL. FedCore translates the coreset optimization problem into a more tractable k-medoids clustering problem and operates distributedly on each client. Theoretical analysis confirms FedCore's convergence, and practical evaluations demonstrate an 8x reduction in FL training time, without compromising model accuracy. Our extensive evaluations also show that FedCore generalizes well to existing FL frameworks.
Multi-turn dialogues are characterized by their extended length and the presence of turn-taking conversations. Traditional language models often overlook the distinct features of these dialogues by treating them as regular text. In this paper, we propose a speaker-enhanced pre-training method for long dialogue summarization, which leverages the inherent structure of multiple-turn dialogues. To support our study, we curate a diverse dataset that includes transcripts from real-world scenarios, movie or TV show transcripts, and dialogues generated by a Large Language Model. We then perform a pre-training, which encompasses the detection of speaker changes, and masked utterance generation. Experimental results of fine-tuned models demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on downstream benchmarks with long context, surpassing baseline models and highlighting the effectiveness of our approach. Our findings highlight the importance of curating pre-training datasets that exhibit diversity and variations in length distribution to ensure effective alignment with downstream datasets.
Image-level weakly supervised semantic segmentation has received increasing attention due to its low annotation cost. Existing methods mainly rely on Class Activation Mapping (CAM) to obtain pseudo-labels for training semantic segmentation models. In this work, we are the first to demonstrate that long-tailed distribution in training data can cause the CAM calculated through classifier weights over-activated for head classes and under-activated for tail classes due to the shared features among head- and tail- classes. This degrades pseudo-label quality and further influences final semantic segmentation performance. To address this issue, we propose a Shared Feature Calibration (SFC) method for CAM generation. Specifically, we leverage the class prototypes that carry positive shared features and propose a Multi-Scaled Distribution-Weighted (MSDW) consistency loss for narrowing the gap between the CAMs generated through classifier weights and class prototypes during training. The MSDW loss counterbalances over-activation and under-activation by calibrating the shared features in head-/tail-class classifier weights. Experimental results show that our SFC significantly improves CAM boundaries and achieves new state-of-the-art performances. The project is available at https://github.com/Barrett-python/SFC.
This paper introduces the Decomposed Requirements Following Ratio (DRFR), a new metric for evaluating Large Language Models' (LLMs) ability to follow instructions. Addressing a gap in current methodologies, DRFR breaks down complex instructions into simpler criteria, facilitating a detailed analysis of LLMs' compliance with various aspects of tasks. Alongside this metric, we present InFoBench, a benchmark comprising 500 diverse instructions and 2,250 decomposed questions across multiple constraint categories. Our experiments compare DRFR with traditional scoring methods and explore annotation sources, including human experts, crowd-sourced workers, and GPT-4. The findings demonstrate DRFR's higher reliability and the effectiveness of using GPT-4 as a cost-efficient annotator. The evaluation of several advanced LLMs using this framework reveals their strengths and areas needing improvement, particularly in complex instruction-following. This study contributes a novel metric and benchmark, offering insights for future LLM development and evaluation.
This paper introduces a novel approach to enhance the capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) in processing and understanding extensive text sequences, a critical aspect in applications requiring deep comprehension and synthesis of large volumes of information. Recognizing the inherent challenges in extending the context window for LLMs, primarily built on Transformer architecture, we propose a new model architecture, referred to as Zebra. This architecture efficiently manages the quadratic time and memory complexity issues associated with full attention in the Transformer by employing grouped local-global attention layers. Our model, akin to a zebra's alternating stripes, balances local and global attention layers, significantly reducing computational requirements and memory consumption. Comprehensive experiments, including pretraining from scratch, continuation of long context adaptation training, and long instruction tuning, are conducted to evaluate the Zebra's performance. The results show that Zebra achieves comparable or superior performance on both short and long sequence benchmarks, while also enhancing training and inference efficiency.
With the rapid development of large language models (LLMs) and their integration into large multimodal models (LMMs), there has been impressive progress in zero-shot completion of user-oriented vision-language tasks. However, a gap remains in the domain of chart image understanding due to the distinct abstract components in charts. To address this, we introduce a large-scale MultiModal Chart Instruction (MMC-Instruction) dataset comprising 600k instances supporting diverse tasks and chart types. Leveraging this data, we develop MultiModal Chart Assistant (MMCA), an LMM that achieves state-of-the-art performance on existing chart QA benchmarks. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive evaluation of LMM chart understanding, we also propose a MultiModal Chart Benchmark (MMC-Benchmark), a comprehensive human-annotated benchmark with 9 distinct tasks evaluating reasoning capabilities over charts. Extensive experiments on MMC-Benchmark reveal the limitations of existing LMMs on correctly interpreting charts, even for the most recent GPT-4V model. Our work provides an instruction-tuning methodology and benchmark to advance multimodal understanding of charts.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable success, demonstrating powerful instruction-following capabilities across diverse tasks. Instruction fine-tuning is critical in enabling LLMs to align with user intentions and effectively follow instructions. In this work, we investigate how instruction fine-tuning modifies pre-trained models, focusing on two perspectives: instruction recognition and knowledge evolution. To study the behavior shift of LLMs, we employ a suite of local and global explanation methods, including a gradient-based approach for input-output attribution and techniques for interpreting patterns and concepts in self-attention and feed-forward layers. Our findings reveal three significant impacts of instruction fine-tuning: 1) It empowers LLMs to better recognize the instruction parts from user prompts, thereby facilitating high-quality response generation and addressing the ``lost-in-the-middle'' issue observed in pre-trained models; 2) It aligns the knowledge stored in feed-forward layers with user-oriented tasks, exhibiting minimal shifts across linguistic levels. 3) It facilitates the learning of word-word relations with instruction verbs through the self-attention mechanism, particularly in the lower and middle layers, indicating enhanced recognition of instruction words. These insights contribute to a deeper understanding of the behavior shifts in LLMs after instruction fine-tuning and lay the groundwork for future research aimed at interpreting and optimizing LLMs for various applications. We will release our code and data soon.
Multi-document summarization aims to obtain core information from a collection of documents written on the same topic. This paper proposes a new holistic framework for unsupervised multi-document extractive summarization. Our method incorporates the holistic beam search inference method associated with the holistic measurements, named Subset Representative Index (SRI). SRI balances the importance and diversity of a subset of sentences from the source documents and can be calculated in unsupervised and adaptive manners. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, we conduct extensive experiments on both small and large-scale multi-document summarization datasets under both unsupervised and adaptive settings. The proposed method outperforms strong baselines by a significant margin, as indicated by the resulting ROUGE scores and diversity measures. Our findings also suggest that diversity is essential for improving multi-document summary performance.
We consider the problem of eliciting compositional generalization capabilities in large language models (LLMs) with a novel type of prompting strategy. Compositional generalization empowers the LLMs to solve problems that are harder than the ones they have seen (i.e., easy-to-hard generalization), which is a critical reasoning capability of human-like intelligence. However, even the current state-of-the-art LLMs still struggle with this form of reasoning. To bridge this gap, we propose skills-in-context (SKiC) prompting, which instructs LLMs how to compose basic skills to resolve more complex problems. We find that it is crucial to demonstrate both the skills and the compositional examples within the same prompting context. With as few as two examplars, our SKiC prompting initiates strong synergies between skills and their composition capabilities. Notably, it empowers LLMs to solve unseen problems that require innovative skill compositions, achieving near-perfect generalization on a broad range of challenging compositionality tasks. Intriguingly, SKiC prompting unlocks the latent potential of LLMs, enabling them to leverage pre-existing internal skills acquired during earlier pre-training stages, even when these skills are not explicitly presented in the prompting context. This results in the capability of LLMs to solve unseen complex problems by activating and composing internal competencies. With such prominent features, SKiC prompting is able to achieve state-of-the-art performance on challenging mathematical reasoning benchmarks (e.g., MATH).