Machine learning makes multimedia data (e.g., images) more attractive, however, multimedia data is usually distributed and privacy sensitive. Multiple distributed multimedia clients can resort to federated learning (FL) to jointly learn a global shared model without requiring to share their private samples with any third-party entities. In this paper, we show that FL suffers from the cross-client generative adversarial networks (GANs)-based (C-GANs) attack, in which a malicious client (i.e., adversary) can reconstruct samples with the same distribution as the training samples from other clients (i.e., victims). Since a benign client's data can be leaked to the adversary, this attack brings the risk of local data leakage for clients in many security-critical FL applications. Thus, we propose Fed-EDKD (i.e., Federated Ensemble Data-free Knowledge Distillation) technique to improve the current popular FL schemes to resist C-GANs attack. In Fed-EDKD, each client submits a local model to the server for obtaining an ensemble global model. Then, to avoid model expansion, Fed-EDKD adopts data-free knowledge distillation techniques to transfer knowledge from the ensemble global model to a compressed model. By this way, Fed-EDKD reduces the adversary's control capability over the global model, so Fed-EDKD can effectively mitigate C-GANs attack. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that Fed-EDKD significantly mitigates C-GANs attack while only incurring a slight accuracy degradation of FL.
Semantic segmentation of multichannel images is a fundamental task for many applications. Selecting an appropriate channel combination from the original multichannel image can improve the accuracy of semantic segmentation and reduce the cost of data storage, processing and future acquisition. Existing channel selection methods typically use a reasonable selection procedure to determine a desirable channel combination, and then train a semantic segmentation network using that combination. In this study, the concept of pruning from a supernet is used for the first time to integrate the selection of channel combination and the training of a semantic segmentation network. Based on this concept, a One-Shot Task-Adaptive (OSTA) channel selection method is proposed for the semantic segmentation of multichannel images. OSTA has three stages, namely the supernet training stage, the pruning stage and the fine-tuning stage. The outcomes of six groups of experiments (L7Irish3C, L7Irish2C, L8Biome3C, L8Biome2C, RIT-18 and Semantic3D) demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of OSTA. OSTA achieved the highest segmentation accuracies in all tests (62.49% (mIoU), 75.40% (mIoU), 68.38% (mIoU), 87.63% (mIoU), 66.53% (mA) and 70.86% (mIoU), respectively). It even exceeded the highest accuracies of exhaustive tests (61.54% (mIoU), 74.91% (mIoU), 67.94% (mIoU), 87.32% (mIoU), 65.32% (mA) and 70.27% (mIoU), respectively), where all possible channel combinations were tested. All of this can be accomplished within a predictable and relatively efficient timeframe, ranging from 101.71% to 298.1% times the time required to train the segmentation network alone. In addition, there were interesting findings that were deemed valuable for several fields.
Neural network pruning has been a well-established compression technique to enable deep learning models on resource-constrained devices. The pruned model is usually specialized to meet specific hardware platforms and training tasks (defined as deployment scenarios). However, existing pruning approaches rely heavily on training data to trade off model size, efficiency, and accuracy, which becomes ineffective for federated learning (FL) over distributed and confidential datasets. Moreover, the memory- and compute-intensive pruning process of most existing approaches cannot be handled by most FL devices with resource limitations. In this paper, we develop FedTiny, a novel distributed pruning framework for FL, to obtain specialized tiny models for memory- and computing-constrained participating devices with confidential local data. To alleviate biased pruning due to unseen heterogeneous data over devices, FedTiny introduces an adaptive batch normalization (BN) selection module to adaptively obtain an initially pruned model to fit deployment scenarios. Besides, to further improve the initial pruning, FedTiny develops a lightweight progressive pruning module for local finer pruning under tight memory and computational budgets, where the pruning policy for each layer is gradually determined rather than evaluating the overall deep model structure. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of FedTiny, which outperforms state-of-the-art baseline approaches, especially when compressing deep models to extremely sparse tiny models.
To solve the existing sentence punctuation problem for collaborative commentary generation in Esports live-streaming, this paper presents two strategies for sentence punctuation for text sequences of game commentary, that is, punctuating sentences by two or three text sequence(s) originally punctuated by Youtube to obtain a complete sentence of commentary. We conducted comparative experiments utilizing and fine-tuning a state-of-the-art pre-trained generative language model among two strategies and the baseline to generate collaborative commentary. Both objective evaluations by automatic metrics and subjective analyses showed that our strategy of punctuating sentences by two text sequences outperformed the baseline.
User interest exploration is an important and challenging topic in recommender systems, which alleviates the closed-loop effects between recommendation models and user-item interactions. Contextual bandit (CB) algorithms strive to make a good trade-off between exploration and exploitation so that users' potential interests have chances to expose. However, classical CB algorithms can only be applied to a small, sampled item set (usually hundreds), which forces the typical applications in recommender systems limited to candidate post-ranking, homepage top item ranking, ad creative selection, or online model selection (A/B test). In this paper, we introduce two simple but effective hierarchical CB algorithms to make a classical CB model (such as LinUCB and Thompson Sampling) capable to explore users' interest in the entire item space without limiting it to a small item set. We first construct a hierarchy item tree via a bottom-up clustering algorithm to organize items in a coarse-to-fine manner. Then we propose a hierarchical CB (HCB) algorithm to explore users' interest in the hierarchy tree. HCB takes the exploration problem as a series of decision-making processes, where the goal is to find a path from the root to a leaf node, and the feedback will be back-propagated to all the nodes in the path. We further propose a progressive hierarchical CB (pHCB) algorithm, which progressively extends visible nodes which reach a confidence level for exploration, to avoid misleading actions on upper-level nodes in the sequential decision-making process. Extensive experiments on two public recommendation datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of our methods.
Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) aims to extract triplets from sentences, where each triplet includes an entity, its associated sentiment, and the opinion span explaining the reason for the sentiment. Most existing research addresses this problem in a multi-stage pipeline manner, which neglects the mutual information between such three elements and has the problem of error propagation. In this paper, we propose a Semantic and Syntactic Enhanced aspect Sentiment triplet Extraction model (S3E2) to fully exploit the syntactic and semantic relationships between the triplet elements and jointly extract them. Specifically, we design a Graph-Sequence duel representation and modeling paradigm for the task of ASTE: we represent the semantic and syntactic relationships between word pairs in a sentence by graph and encode it by Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), as well as modeling the original sentence by LSTM to preserve the sequential information. Under this setting, we further apply a more efficient inference strategy for the extraction of triplets. Extensive evaluations on four benchmark datasets show that S3E2 significantly outperforms existing approaches, which proves our S3E2's superiority and flexibility in an end-to-end fashion.
The graph embedding (GE) methods have been widely applied for dimensionality reduction of hyperspectral imagery (HSI). However, a major challenge of GE is how to choose proper neighbors for graph construction and explore the spatial information of HSI data. In this paper, we proposed an unsupervised dimensionality reduction algorithm termed spatial-spectral manifold reconstruction preserving embedding (SSMRPE) for HSI classification. At first, a weighted mean filter (WMF) is employed to preprocess the image, which aims to reduce the influence of background noise. According to the spatial consistency property of HSI, the SSMRPE method utilizes a new spatial-spectral combined distance (SSCD) to fuse the spatial structure and spectral information for selecting effective spatial-spectral neighbors of HSI pixels. Then, it explores the spatial relationship between each point and its neighbors to adjusts the reconstruction weights for improving the efficiency of manifold reconstruction. As a result, the proposed method can extract the discriminant features and subsequently improve the classification performance of HSI. The experimental results on PaviaU and Salinas hyperspectral datasets indicate that SSMRPE can achieve better classification accuracies in comparison with some state-of-the-art methods.