Understanding 4D point cloud sequences online is of significant practical value in various scenarios such as VR/AR, robotics, and autonomous driving. The key goal is to continuously analyze the geometry and dynamics of a 3D scene as unstructured and redundant point cloud sequences arrive. And the main challenge is to effectively model the long-term history while keeping computational costs manageable. To tackle these challenges, we introduce a generic online 4D perception paradigm called NSM4D. NSM4D serves as a plug-and-play strategy that can be adapted to existing 4D backbones, significantly enhancing their online perception capabilities for both indoor and outdoor scenarios. To efficiently capture the redundant 4D history, we propose a neural scene model that factorizes geometry and motion information by constructing geometry tokens separately storing geometry and motion features. Exploiting the history becomes as straightforward as querying the neural scene model. As the sequence progresses, the neural scene model dynamically deforms to align with new observations, effectively providing the historical context and updating itself with the new observations. By employing token representation, NSM4D also exhibits robustness to low-level sensor noise and maintains a compact size through a geometric sampling scheme. We integrate NSM4D with state-of-the-art 4D perception backbones, demonstrating significant improvements on various online perception benchmarks in indoor and outdoor settings. Notably, we achieve a 9.6% accuracy improvement for HOI4D online action segmentation and a 3.4% mIoU improvement for SemanticKITTI online semantic segmentation. Furthermore, we show that NSM4D inherently offers excellent scalability to longer sequences beyond the training set, which is crucial for real-world applications.
This paper presents DreamLLM, a learning framework that first achieves versatile Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) empowered with frequently overlooked synergy between multimodal comprehension and creation. DreamLLM operates on two fundamental principles. The first focuses on the generative modeling of both language and image posteriors by direct sampling in the raw multimodal space. This approach circumvents the limitations and information loss inherent to external feature extractors like CLIP, and a more thorough multimodal understanding is obtained. Second, DreamLLM fosters the generation of raw, interleaved documents, modeling both text and image contents, along with unstructured layouts. This allows DreamLLM to learn all conditional, marginal, and joint multimodal distributions effectively. As a result, DreamLLM is the first MLLM capable of generating free-form interleaved content. Comprehensive experiments highlight DreamLLM's superior performance as a zero-shot multimodal generalist, reaping from the enhanced learning synergy.
Transparent objects are common in daily life. However, depth sensing for transparent objects remains a challenging problem. While learning-based methods can leverage shape priors to improve the sensing quality, the labor-intensive data collection in the real world and the sim-to-real domain gap restrict these methods' scalability. In this paper, we propose a method to finetune a stereo network with sparse depth labels automatically collected using a probing system with tactile feedback. We present a novel utility function to evaluate the benefit of touches. By approximating and optimizing the utility function, we can optimize the probing locations given a fixed touching budget to better improve the network's performance on real objects. We further combine tactile depth supervision with a confidence-based regularization to prevent over-fitting during finetuning. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we construct a real-world dataset including both diffuse and transparent objects. Experimental results on this dataset show that our method can significantly improve real-world depth sensing accuracy, especially for transparent objects.
Keypoint-based representation has proven advantageous in various visual and robotic tasks. However, the existing 2D and 3D methods for detecting keypoints mainly rely on geometric consistency to achieve spatial alignment, neglecting temporal consistency. To address this issue, the Transporter method was introduced for 2D data, which reconstructs the target frame from the source frame to incorporate both spatial and temporal information. However, the direct application of the Transporter to 3D point clouds is infeasible due to their structural differences from 2D images. Thus, we propose the first 3D version of the Transporter, which leverages hybrid 3D representation, cross attention, and implicit reconstruction. We apply this new learning system on 3D articulated objects and nonrigid animals (humans and rodents) and show that learned keypoints are spatio-temporally consistent. Additionally, we propose a closed-loop control strategy that utilizes the learned keypoints for 3D object manipulation and demonstrate its superior performance. Codes are available at https://github.com/zhongcl-thu/3D-Implicit-Transporter.
We study the problem of few-shot physically-aware articulated mesh generation. By observing an articulated object dataset containing only a few examples, we wish to learn a model that can generate diverse meshes with high visual fidelity and physical validity. Previous mesh generative models either have difficulties in depicting a diverse data space from only a few examples or fail to ensure physical validity of their samples. Regarding the above challenges, we propose two key innovations, including 1) a hierarchical mesh deformation-based generative model based upon the divide-and-conquer philosophy to alleviate the few-shot challenge by borrowing transferrable deformation patterns from large scale rigid meshes and 2) a physics-aware deformation correction scheme to encourage physically plausible generations. We conduct extensive experiments on 6 articulated categories to demonstrate the superiority of our method in generating articulated meshes with better diversity, higher visual fidelity, and better physical validity over previous methods in the few-shot setting. Further, we validate solid contributions of our two innovations in the ablation study. Project page with code is available at https://meowuu7.github.io/few-arti-obj-gen.
We propose a novel, object-agnostic method for learning a universal policy for dexterous object grasping from realistic point cloud observations and proprioceptive information under a table-top setting, namely UniDexGrasp++. To address the challenge of learning the vision-based policy across thousands of object instances, we propose Geometry-aware Curriculum Learning (GeoCurriculum) and Geometry-aware iterative Generalist-Specialist Learning (GiGSL) which leverage the geometry feature of the task and significantly improve the generalizability. With our proposed techniques, our final policy shows universal dexterous grasping on thousands of object instances with 85.4% and 78.2% success rate on the train set and test set which outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline UniDexGrasp by 11.7% and 11.3%, respectively.
Given a 3D object, kinematic motion prediction aims to identify the mobile parts as well as the corresponding motion parameters. Due to the large variations in both topological structure and geometric details of 3D objects, this remains a challenging task and the lack of large scale labeled data also constrain the performance of deep learning based approaches. In this paper, we tackle the task of object kinematic motion prediction problem in a semi-weakly supervised manner. Our key observations are two-fold. First, although 3D dataset with fully annotated motion labels is limited, there are existing datasets and methods for object part semantic segmentation at large scale. Second, semantic part segmentation and mobile part segmentation is not always consistent but it is possible to detect the mobile parts from the underlying 3D structure. Towards this end, we propose a graph neural network to learn the map between hierarchical part-level segmentation and mobile parts parameters, which are further refined based on geometric alignment. This network can be first trained on PartNet-Mobility dataset with fully labeled mobility information and then applied on PartNet dataset with fine-grained and hierarchical part-level segmentation. The network predictions yield a large scale of 3D objects with pseudo labeled mobility information and can further be used for weakly-supervised learning with pre-existing segmentation. Our experiments show there are significant performance boosts with the augmented data for previous method designed for kinematic motion prediction on 3D partial scans.
We propose a method that trains a neural radiance field (NeRF) to encode not only the appearance of the scene but also semantic correlations between scene points, regions, or entities -- aiming to capture their mutual co-variation patterns. In contrast to the traditional first-order photometric reconstruction objective, our method explicitly regularizes the learning dynamics to align the Jacobians of highly-correlated entities, which proves to maximize the mutual information between them under random scene perturbations. By paying attention to this second-order information, we can shape a NeRF to express semantically meaningful synergies when the network weights are changed by a delta along the gradient of a single entity, region, or even a point. To demonstrate the merit of this mutual information modeling, we leverage the coordinated behavior of scene entities that emerges from our shaping to perform label propagation for semantic and instance segmentation. Our experiments show that a JacobiNeRF is more efficient in propagating annotations among 2D pixels and 3D points compared to NeRFs without mutual information shaping, especially in extremely sparse label regimes -- thus reducing annotation burden. The same machinery can further be used for entity selection or scene modifications.
High-resolution images enable neural networks to learn richer visual representations. However, this improved performance comes at the cost of growing computational complexity, hindering their usage in latency-sensitive applications. As not all pixels are equal, skipping computations for less-important regions offers a simple and effective measure to reduce the computation. This, however, is hard to be translated into actual speedup for CNNs since it breaks the regularity of the dense convolution workload. In this paper, we introduce SparseViT that revisits activation sparsity for recent window-based vision transformers (ViTs). As window attentions are naturally batched over blocks, actual speedup with window activation pruning becomes possible: i.e., ~50% latency reduction with 60% sparsity. Different layers should be assigned with different pruning ratios due to their diverse sensitivities and computational costs. We introduce sparsity-aware adaptation and apply the evolutionary search to efficiently find the optimal layerwise sparsity configuration within the vast search space. SparseViT achieves speedups of 1.5x, 1.4x, and 1.3x compared to its dense counterpart in monocular 3D object detection, 2D instance segmentation, and 2D semantic segmentation, respectively, with negligible to no loss of accuracy.
In this work, we focus on a novel task of category-level functional hand-object manipulation synthesis covering both rigid and articulated object categories. Given an object geometry, an initial human hand pose as well as a sparse control sequence of object poses, our goal is to generate a physically reasonable hand-object manipulation sequence that performs like human beings. To address such a challenge, we first design CAnonicalized Manipulation Spaces (CAMS), a two-level space hierarchy that canonicalizes the hand poses in an object-centric and contact-centric view. Benefiting from the representation capability of CAMS, we then present a two-stage framework for synthesizing human-like manipulation animations. Our framework achieves state-of-the-art performance for both rigid and articulated categories with impressive visual effects. Codes and video results can be found at our project homepage: https://cams-hoi.github.io/