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Jun Zhang

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Towards Real-Time Neural Video Codec for Cross-Platform Application Using Calibration Information

Sep 20, 2023
Kuan Tian, Yonghang Guan, Jinxi Xiang, Jun Zhang, Xiao Han, Wei Yang

The state-of-the-art neural video codecs have outperformed the most sophisticated traditional codecs in terms of RD performance in certain cases. However, utilizing them for practical applications is still challenging for two major reasons. 1) Cross-platform computational errors resulting from floating point operations can lead to inaccurate decoding of the bitstream. 2) The high computational complexity of the encoding and decoding process poses a challenge in achieving real-time performance. In this paper, we propose a real-time cross-platform neural video codec, which is capable of efficiently decoding of 720P video bitstream from other encoding platforms on a consumer-grade GPU. First, to solve the problem of inconsistency of codec caused by the uncertainty of floating point calculations across platforms, we design a calibration transmitting system to guarantee the consistent quantization of entropy parameters between the encoding and decoding stages. The parameters that may have transboundary quantization between encoding and decoding are identified in the encoding stage, and their coordinates will be delivered by auxiliary transmitted bitstream. By doing so, these inconsistent parameters can be processed properly in the decoding stage. Furthermore, to reduce the bitrate of the auxiliary bitstream, we rectify the distribution of entropy parameters using a piecewise Gaussian constraint. Second, to match the computational limitations on the decoding side for real-time video codec, we design a lightweight model. A series of efficiency techniques enable our model to achieve 25 FPS decoding speed on NVIDIA RTX 2080 GPU. Experimental results demonstrate that our model can achieve real-time decoding of 720P videos while encoding on another platform. Furthermore, the real-time model brings up to a maximum of 24.2\% BD-rate improvement from the perspective of PSNR with the anchor H.265.

* 14 pages 
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AI-Native Transceiver Design for Near-Field Ultra-Massive MIMO: Principles and Techniques

Sep 18, 2023
Wentao Yu, Yifan Ma, Hengtao He, Shenghui Song, Jun Zhang, Khaled B. Letaief

Ultra-massive multiple-input multiple-output (UM-MIMO) is a cutting-edge technology that promises to revolutionize wireless networks by providing an unprecedentedly high spectral and energy efficiency. The enlarged array aperture of UM-MIMO facilitates the accessibility of the near-field region, thereby offering a novel degree of freedom for communications and sensing. Nevertheless, the transceiver design for such systems is challenging because of the enormous system scale, the complicated channel characteristics, and the uncertainties in propagation environments. Therefore, it is critical to study scalable, low-complexity, and robust algorithms that can efficiently characterize and leverage the properties of the near-field channel. In this article, we will advocate two general frameworks from an artificial intelligence (AI)-native perspective, which are tailored for the algorithmic design of near-field UM-MIMO transceivers. Specifically, the frameworks for both iterative and non-iterative algorithms are discussed. Near-field beam focusing and channel estimation are presented as two tutorial-style examples to demonstrate the significant advantages of the proposed AI-native frameworks in terms of various key performance indicators.

* 7 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables, magazine manuscript, submitted to IEEE for possible publication 
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Draft & Verify: Lossless Large Language Model Acceleration via Self-Speculative Decoding

Sep 15, 2023
Jun Zhang, Jue Wang, Huan Li, Lidan Shou, Ke Chen, Gang Chen, Sharad Mehrotra

We present a novel inference scheme, self-speculative decoding, for accelerating Large Language Models (LLMs) without the need for an auxiliary model. This approach is characterized by a two-stage process: drafting and verification. The drafting stage generates draft tokens at a slightly lower quality but more quickly, which is achieved by selectively skipping certain intermediate layers during drafting Subsequently, the verification stage employs the original LLM to validate those draft output tokens in one forward pass. This process ensures the final output remains identical to that produced by the unaltered LLM, thereby maintaining output quality. The proposed method requires no additional neural network training and no extra memory footprint, making it a plug-and-play and cost-effective solution for inference acceleration. Benchmarks with LLaMA-2 and its fine-tuned models demonstrated a speedup up to 1.73$\times$.

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Client-side Gradient Inversion Against Federated Learning from Poisoning

Sep 14, 2023
Jiaheng Wei, Yanjun Zhang, Leo Yu Zhang, Chao Chen, Shirui Pan, Kok-Leong Ong, Jun Zhang, Yang Xiang

Federated Learning (FL) enables distributed participants (e.g., mobile devices) to train a global model without sharing data directly to a central server. Recent studies have revealed that FL is vulnerable to gradient inversion attack (GIA), which aims to reconstruct the original training samples and poses high risk against the privacy of clients in FL. However, most existing GIAs necessitate control over the server and rely on strong prior knowledge including batch normalization and data distribution information. In this work, we propose Client-side poisoning Gradient Inversion (CGI), which is a novel attack method that can be launched from clients. For the first time, we show the feasibility of a client-side adversary with limited knowledge being able to recover the training samples from the aggregated global model. We take a distinct approach in which the adversary utilizes a malicious model that amplifies the loss of a specific targeted class of interest. When honest clients employ the poisoned global model, the gradients of samples belonging to the targeted class are magnified, making them the dominant factor in the aggregated update. This enables the adversary to effectively reconstruct the private input belonging to other clients using the aggregated update. In addition, our CGI also features its ability to remain stealthy against Byzantine-robust aggregation rules (AGRs). By optimizing malicious updates and blending benign updates with a malicious replacement vector, our method remains undetected by these defense mechanisms. To evaluate the performance of CGI, we conduct experiments on various benchmark datasets, considering representative Byzantine-robust AGRs, and exploring diverse FL settings with different levels of adversary knowledge about the data. Our results demonstrate that CGI consistently and successfully extracts training input in all tested scenarios.

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NTU4DRadLM: 4D Radar-centric Multi-Modal Dataset for Localization and Mapping

Sep 02, 2023
Jun Zhang, Huayang Zhuge, Yiyao Liu, Guohao Peng, Zhenyu Wu, Haoyuan Zhang, Qiyang Lyu, Heshan Li, Chunyang Zhao, Dogan Kircali, Sanat Mharolkar, Xun Yang, Su Yi, Yuanzhe Wang, Danwei Wang

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Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) is moving towards a robust perception age. However, LiDAR- and visual- SLAM may easily fail in adverse conditions (rain, snow, smoke and fog, etc.). In comparison, SLAM based on 4D Radar, thermal camera and IMU can work robustly. But only a few literature can be found. A major reason is the lack of related datasets, which seriously hinders the research. Even though some datasets are proposed based on 4D radar in past four years, they are mainly designed for object detection, rather than SLAM. Furthermore, they normally do not include thermal camera. Therefore, in this paper, NTU4DRadLM is presented to meet this requirement. The main characteristics are: 1) It is the only dataset that simultaneously includes all 6 sensors: 4D radar, thermal camera, IMU, 3D LiDAR, visual camera and RTK GPS. 2) Specifically designed for SLAM tasks, which provides fine-tuned ground truth odometry and intentionally formulated loop closures. 3) Considered both low-speed robot platform and fast-speed unmanned vehicle platform. 4) Covered structured, unstructured and semi-structured environments. 5) Considered both middle- and large- scale outdoor environments, i.e., the 6 trajectories range from 246m to 6.95km. 6) Comprehensively evaluated three types of SLAM algorithms. Totally, the dataset is around 17.6km, 85mins, 50GB and it will be accessible from this link:

* 2023 IEEE International Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC 2023) 
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FedCiR: Client-Invariant Representation Learning for Federated Non-IID Features

Aug 30, 2023
Zijian Li, Zehong Lin, Jiawei Shao, Yuyi Mao, Jun Zhang

Federated learning (FL) is a distributed learning paradigm that maximizes the potential of data-driven models for edge devices without sharing their raw data. However, devices often have non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID) data, meaning their local data distributions can vary significantly. The heterogeneity in input data distributions across devices, commonly referred to as the feature shift problem, can adversely impact the training convergence and accuracy of the global model. To analyze the intrinsic causes of the feature shift problem, we develop a generalization error bound in FL, which motivates us to propose FedCiR, a client-invariant representation learning framework that enables clients to extract informative and client-invariant features. Specifically, we improve the mutual information term between representations and labels to encourage representations to carry essential classification knowledge, and diminish the mutual information term between the client set and representations conditioned on labels to promote representations of clients to be client-invariant. We further incorporate two regularizers into the FL framework to bound the mutual information terms with an approximate global representation distribution to compensate for the absence of the ground-truth global representation distribution, thus achieving informative and client-invariant feature extraction. To achieve global representation distribution approximation, we propose a data-free mechanism performed by the server without compromising privacy. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in achieving client-invariant representation learning and solving the data heterogeneity issue.

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Forensic Histopathological Recognition via a Context-Aware MIL Network Powered by Self-Supervised Contrastive Learning

Aug 27, 2023
Chen Shen, Jun Zhang, Xinggong Liang, Zeyi Hao, Kehan Li, Fan Wang, Zhenyuan Wang, Chunfeng Lian

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Forensic pathology is critical in analyzing death manner and time from the microscopic aspect to assist in the establishment of reliable factual bases for criminal investigation. In practice, even the manual differentiation between different postmortem organ tissues is challenging and relies on expertise, considering that changes like putrefaction and autolysis could significantly change typical histopathological appearance. Developing AI-based computational pathology techniques to assist forensic pathologists is practically meaningful, which requires reliable discriminative representation learning to capture tissues' fine-grained postmortem patterns. To this end, we propose a framework called FPath, in which a dedicated self-supervised contrastive learning strategy and a context-aware multiple-instance learning (MIL) block are designed to learn discriminative representations from postmortem histopathological images acquired at varying magnification scales. Our self-supervised learning step leverages multiple complementary contrastive losses and regularization terms to train a double-tier backbone for fine-grained and informative patch/instance embedding. Thereafter, the context-aware MIL adaptively distills from the local instances a holistic bag/image-level representation for the recognition task. On a large-scale database of $19,607$ experimental rat postmortem images and $3,378$ real-world human decedent images, our FPath led to state-of-the-art accuracy and promising cross-domain generalization in recognizing seven different postmortem tissues. The source code will be released on \href{}{\_pathology}.

* 11 pages, 2 figures 
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Dynamic Low-Rank Instance Adaptation for Universal Neural Image Compression

Aug 15, 2023
Yue Lv, Jinxi Xiang, Jun Zhang, Wenming Yang, Xiao Han, Wei Yang

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The latest advancements in neural image compression show great potential in surpassing the rate-distortion performance of conventional standard codecs. Nevertheless, there exists an indelible domain gap between the datasets utilized for training (i.e., natural images) and those utilized for inference (e.g., artistic images). Our proposal involves a low-rank adaptation approach aimed at addressing the rate-distortion drop observed in out-of-domain datasets. Specifically, we perform low-rank matrix decomposition to update certain adaptation parameters of the client's decoder. These updated parameters, along with image latents, are encoded into a bitstream and transmitted to the decoder in practical scenarios. Due to the low-rank constraint imposed on the adaptation parameters, the resulting bit rate overhead is small. Furthermore, the bit rate allocation of low-rank adaptation is \emph{non-trivial}, considering the diverse inputs require varying adaptation bitstreams. We thus introduce a dynamic gating network on top of the low-rank adaptation method, in order to decide which decoder layer should employ adaptation. The dynamic adaptation network is optimized end-to-end using rate-distortion loss. Our proposed method exhibits universality across diverse image datasets. Extensive results demonstrate that this paradigm significantly mitigates the domain gap, surpassing non-adaptive methods with an average BD-rate improvement of approximately $19\%$ across out-of-domain images. Furthermore, it outperforms the most advanced instance adaptive methods by roughly $5\%$ BD-rate. Ablation studies confirm our method's ability to universally enhance various image compression architectures.

* Accepted by ACM MM 2023, 13 pages, 12 figures 
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IP-Adapter: Text Compatible Image Prompt Adapter for Text-to-Image Diffusion Models

Aug 13, 2023
Hu Ye, Jun Zhang, Sibo Liu, Xiao Han, Wei Yang

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Recent years have witnessed the strong power of large text-to-image diffusion models for the impressive generative capability to create high-fidelity images. However, it is very tricky to generate desired images using only text prompt as it often involves complex prompt engineering. An alternative to text prompt is image prompt, as the saying goes: "an image is worth a thousand words". Although existing methods of direct fine-tuning from pretrained models are effective, they require large computing resources and are not compatible with other base models, text prompt, and structural controls. In this paper, we present IP-Adapter, an effective and lightweight adapter to achieve image prompt capability for the pretrained text-to-image diffusion models. The key design of our IP-Adapter is decoupled cross-attention mechanism that separates cross-attention layers for text features and image features. Despite the simplicity of our method, an IP-Adapter with only 22M parameters can achieve comparable or even better performance to a fully fine-tuned image prompt model. As we freeze the pretrained diffusion model, the proposed IP-Adapter can be generalized not only to other custom models fine-tuned from the same base model, but also to controllable generation using existing controllable tools. With the benefit of the decoupled cross-attention strategy, the image prompt can also work well with the text prompt to achieve multimodal image generation. The project page is available at \url{}.

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A new solution and concrete implementation steps for Artificial General Intelligence

Aug 12, 2023
Yongcong Chen, Ting Zeng, Jun Zhang

At present, the mainstream artificial intelligence generally adopts the technical path of "attention mechanism + deep learning" + "reinforcement learning". It has made great progress in the field of AIGC (Artificial Intelligence Generated Content), setting off the technical wave of big models[ 2][13 ]. But in areas that need to interact with the actual environment, such as elderly care, home nanny, agricultural production, and vehicle driving, trial and error are expensive and a reinforcement learning process that requires much trial and error is difficult to achieve. Therefore, in order to achieve Artificial General Intelligence(AGI) that can be applied to any field, we need to use both existing technologies and solve the defects of existing technologies, so as to further develop the technological wave of artificial intelligence. In this paper, we analyze the limitations of the technical route of large models, and by addressing these limitations, we propose solutions, thus solving the inherent defects of large models. In this paper, we will reveal how to achieve true AGI step by step.

* 30 pages, 2 figures, 1 table 
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