We introduce AnyTool, a large language model agent designed to revolutionize the utilization of a vast array of tools in addressing user queries. We utilize over 16,000 APIs from Rapid API, operating under the assumption that a subset of these APIs could potentially resolve the queries. AnyTool primarily incorporates three elements: an API retriever with a hierarchical structure, a solver aimed at resolving user queries using a selected set of API candidates, and a self-reflection mechanism, which re-activates AnyTool if the initial solution proves impracticable. AnyTool is powered by the function calling feature of GPT-4, eliminating the need for training external modules. We also revisit the evaluation protocol introduced by previous works and identify a limitation in this protocol that leads to an artificially high pass rate. By revising the evaluation protocol to better reflect practical application scenarios, we introduce an additional benchmark, termed AnyToolBench. Experiments across various datasets demonstrate the superiority of our AnyTool over strong baselines such as ToolLLM and a GPT-4 variant tailored for tool utilization. For instance, AnyTool outperforms ToolLLM by +35.4% in terms of average pass rate on ToolBench. Code will be available at https://github.com/dyabel/AnyTool.
Autoregressive decoding makes the inference of Large Language Models (LLMs) time-consuming. In this paper, we reconsider speculative sampling and derive two key observations. Firstly, autoregression at the feature (second-to-top-layer) level is more straightforward than at the token level. Secondly, the inherent uncertainty in feature (second-to-top-layer) level autoregression constrains its performance. Based on these insights, we introduce EAGLE (Extrapolation Algorithm for Greater Language-model Efficiency), a simple yet highly efficient speculative sampling framework. By incorporating a token sequence advanced by one time step, EAGLE effectively resolves the uncertainty, enabling precise second-to-top-layer feature prediction with minimal overhead. We conducted comprehensive evaluations of EAGLE, including all models from the Vicuna and LLaMA2-Chat series, the MoE model Mixtral 8x7B Instruct, and tasks in dialogue, code generation, mathematical reasoning, and instruction following. For LLaMA2-Chat 70B, EAGLE achieved a latency speedup ratio of 2.7x-3.5x, doubled throughput, while maintaining the distribution of the generated text.
The objective of sign language recognition is to bridge the communication gap between the deaf and the hearing. Numerous previous works train their models using the well-established connectionist temporal classification (CTC) loss. During the inference stage, the CTC-based models typically take the entire sign video as input to make predictions. This type of inference scheme is referred to as offline recognition. In contrast, while mature speech recognition systems can efficiently recognize spoken words on the fly, sign language recognition still falls short due to the lack of practical online solutions. In this work, we take the first step towards filling this gap. Our approach comprises three phases: 1) developing a sign language dictionary encompassing all glosses present in a target sign language dataset; 2) training an isolated sign language recognition model on augmented signs using both conventional classification loss and our novel saliency loss; 3) employing a sliding window approach on the input sign sequence and feeding each sign clip to the well-optimized model for online recognition. Furthermore, our online recognition model can be extended to boost the performance of any offline model, and to support online translation by appending a gloss-to-text network onto the recognition model. By integrating our online framework with the previously best-performing offline model, TwoStream-SLR, we achieve new state-of-the-art performance on three benchmarks: Phoenix-2014, Phoenix-2014T, and CSL-Daily. Code and models will be available at https://github.com/FangyunWei/SLRT
The objective of this paper is to develop a functional system for translating spoken languages into sign languages, referred to as Spoken2Sign translation. The Spoken2Sign task is orthogonal and complementary to traditional sign language to spoken language (Sign2Spoken) translation. To enable Spoken2Sign translation, we present a simple baseline consisting of three steps: 1) creating a gloss-video dictionary using existing Sign2Spoken benchmarks; 2) estimating a 3D sign for each sign video in the dictionary; 3) training a Spoken2Sign model, which is composed of a Text2Gloss translator, a sign connector, and a rendering module, with the aid of the yielded gloss-3D sign dictionary. The translation results are then displayed through a sign avatar. As far as we know, we are the first to present the Spoken2Sign task in an output format of 3D signs. In addition to its capability of Spoken2Sign translation, we also demonstrate that two by-products of our approach-3D keypoint augmentation and multi-view understanding-can assist in keypoint-based sign language understanding. Code and models will be available at https://github.com/FangyunWei/SLRT
Large language models (LLMs) often demonstrate inconsistencies with human preferences. Previous research gathered human preference data and then aligned the pre-trained models using reinforcement learning or instruction tuning, the so-called finetuning step. In contrast, aligning frozen LLMs without any extra data is more appealing. This work explores the potential of the latter setting. We discover that by integrating self-evaluation and rewind mechanisms, unaligned LLMs can directly produce responses consistent with human preferences via self-boosting. We introduce a novel inference method, Rewindable Auto-regressive INference (RAIN), that allows pre-trained LLMs to evaluate their own generation and use the evaluation results to guide backward rewind and forward generation for AI safety. Notably, RAIN operates without the need of extra data for model alignment and abstains from any training, gradient computation, or parameter updates; during the self-evaluation phase, the model receives guidance on which human preference to align with through a fixed-template prompt, eliminating the need to modify the initial prompt. Experimental results evaluated by GPT-4 and humans demonstrate the effectiveness of RAIN: on the HH dataset, RAIN improves the harmlessness rate of LLaMA 30B over vanilla inference from 82% to 97%, while maintaining the helpfulness rate. Under the leading adversarial attack llm-attacks on Vicuna 33B, RAIN establishes a new defense baseline by reducing the attack success rate from 94% to 19%.
Deep Neural Networks can be easily fooled by small and imperceptible perturbations. The query-based black-box attack (QBBA) is able to create the perturbations using model output probabilities of image queries requiring no access to the underlying models. QBBA poses realistic threats to real-world applications. Recently, various types of robustness have been explored to defend against QBBA. In this work, we first taxonomize the stochastic defense strategies against QBBA. Following our taxonomy, we propose to explore non-additive randomness in models to defend against QBBA. Specifically, we focus on underexplored Vision Transformers based on their flexible architectures. Extensive experiments show that the proposed defense approach achieves effective defense, without much sacrifice in performance.
Previous animatable 3D-aware GANs for human generation have primarily focused on either the human head or full body. However, head-only videos are relatively uncommon in real life, and full body generation typically does not deal with facial expression control and still has challenges in generating high-quality results. Towards applicable video avatars, we present an animatable 3D-aware GAN that generates portrait images with controllable facial expression, head pose, and shoulder movements. It is a generative model trained on unstructured 2D image collections without using 3D or video data. For the new task, we base our method on the generative radiance manifold representation and equip it with learnable facial and head-shoulder deformations. A dual-camera rendering and adversarial learning scheme is proposed to improve the quality of the generated faces, which is critical for portrait images. A pose deformation processing network is developed to generate plausible deformations for challenging regions such as long hair. Experiments show that our method, trained on unstructured 2D images, can generate diverse and high-quality 3D portraits with desired control over different properties.
This work dedicates to continuous sign language recognition (CSLR), which is a weakly supervised task dealing with the recognition of continuous signs from videos, without any prior knowledge about the temporal boundaries between consecutive signs. Data scarcity heavily impedes the progress of CSLR. Existing approaches typically train CSLR models on a monolingual corpus, which is orders of magnitude smaller than that of speech recognition. In this work, we explore the feasibility of utilizing multilingual sign language corpora to facilitate monolingual CSLR. Our work is built upon the observation of cross-lingual signs, which originate from different sign languages but have similar visual signals (e.g., hand shape and motion). The underlying idea of our approach is to identify the cross-lingual signs in one sign language and properly leverage them as auxiliary training data to improve the recognition capability of another. To achieve the goal, we first build two sign language dictionaries containing isolated signs that appear in two datasets. Then we identify the sign-to-sign mappings between two sign languages via a well-optimized isolated sign language recognition model. At last, we train a CSLR model on the combination of the target data with original labels and the auxiliary data with mapped labels. Experimentally, our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on two widely-used CSLR datasets: Phoenix-2014 and Phoenix-2014T.
This work focuses on sign language retrieval-a recently proposed task for sign language understanding. Sign language retrieval consists of two sub-tasks: text-to-sign-video (T2V) retrieval and sign-video-to-text (V2T) retrieval. Different from traditional video-text retrieval, sign language videos, not only contain visual signals but also carry abundant semantic meanings by themselves due to the fact that sign languages are also natural languages. Considering this character, we formulate sign language retrieval as a cross-lingual retrieval problem as well as a video-text retrieval task. Concretely, we take into account the linguistic properties of both sign languages and natural languages, and simultaneously identify the fine-grained cross-lingual (i.e., sign-to-word) mappings while contrasting the texts and the sign videos in a joint embedding space. This process is termed as cross-lingual contrastive learning. Another challenge is raised by the data scarcity issue-sign language datasets are orders of magnitude smaller in scale than that of speech recognition. We alleviate this issue by adopting a domain-agnostic sign encoder pre-trained on large-scale sign videos into the target domain via pseudo-labeling. Our framework, termed as domain-aware sign language retrieval via Cross-lingual Contrastive learning or CiCo for short, outperforms the pioneering method by large margins on various datasets, e.g., +22.4 T2V and +28.0 V2T R@1 improvements on How2Sign dataset, and +13.7 T2V and +17.1 V2T R@1 improvements on PHOENIX-2014T dataset. Code and models are available at: https://github.com/FangyunWei/SLRT.