Federated learning (FL) has been widely adopted for collaborative training on decentralized data. However, it faces the challenges of data, system, and model heterogeneity. This has inspired the emergence of model-heterogeneous personalized federated learning (MHPFL). Nevertheless, the problem of ensuring data and model privacy, while achieving good model performance and keeping communication and computation costs low remains open in MHPFL. To address this problem, we propose a model-heterogeneous personalized Federated learning with Mixture of Experts (pFedMoE) method. It assigns a shared homogeneous small feature extractor and a local gating network for each client's local heterogeneous large model. Firstly, during local training, the local heterogeneous model's feature extractor acts as a local expert for personalized feature (representation) extraction, while the shared homogeneous small feature extractor serves as a global expert for generalized feature extraction. The local gating network produces personalized weights for extracted representations from both experts on each data sample. The three models form a local heterogeneous MoE. The weighted mixed representation fuses generalized and personalized features and is processed by the local heterogeneous large model's header with personalized prediction information. The MoE and prediction header are updated simultaneously. Secondly, the trained local homogeneous small feature extractors are sent to the server for cross-client information fusion via aggregation. Overall, pFedMoE enhances local model personalization at a fine-grained data level, while supporting model heterogeneity.
Federated learning (FL) is widely employed for collaborative training on decentralized data but faces challenges like data, system, and model heterogeneity. This prompted the emergency of model-heterogeneous personalized federated learning (MHPFL). However, concerns persist regarding data and model privacy, model performance, communication, and computational costs in current MHPFL methods. To tackle these concerns, we propose a novel model-heterogeneous personalized Federated learning algorithm (FedMoE) with the Mixture of Experts (MoE), renowned for enhancing large language models (LLMs). It assigns a shared homogeneous small feature extractor and a local gating network for each client's local heterogeneous large model. (1) During local training, the local heterogeneous model's feature extractor acts as a local expert for personalized feature (representation) extraction, while the shared homogeneous small feature extractor serves as a global expert for generalized feature extraction. The local gating network produces personalized weights for extracted representations from both experts on each data sample. The three models form a local heterogeneous MoE. The weighted mixed representation fuses global generalized and local personalized features and is processed by the local heterogeneous large model's header with personalized prediction information for output. The MoE and prediction header are updated synchronously. (2) The trained local homogeneous small feature extractors are sent to the server for cross-client information fusion via aggregation. Briefly, FedMoE first enhances local model personalization at a fine-grained data level while supporting model heterogeneity.
Force perception on medical instruments is critical for understanding the mechanism between surgical tools and tissues for feeding back quantized force information, which is essential for guidance and supervision in robotic autonomous surgery. Especially for continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC), it always lacks a force measuring method, providing a sensitive, accurate, and multi-dimensional measurement to track the intraoperative force. Furthermore, the decoupling matrix obtained from the calibration can decorrelate signals with acceptable accuracy, however, this calculating method is not a strong way for thoroughly decoupling under some sensitive measuring situations such as the CCC. In this paper, a three-dimensional force perception method on capsulorhexis forceps by installing Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs) on prongs and a signal decoupling method combined with FASTICA is first proposed to solve these problems. According to experimental results, the measuring range is up to 1 N (depending on the range of wavelength shifts of sensors) and the resolution on x, y, and z axial force is 0.5, 0.5, and 2 mN separately. To minimize the coupling effects among sensors on measuring multi-axial forces, by unitizing the particular parameter and scaling the corresponding vector in the mixing matrix and recovered signals from FastICA, the signals from sensors can be decorrelated and recovered with the errors on axial forces decreasing up to 50% least. The calibration and calculation can also be simplified with half the parameters involved in the calculation. Experiments on thin sheets and in vitro porcine eyes were performed, and it was found that the tearing forces were stable and the time sequence of tearing forceps was stationary or first-order difference stationary during roughly circular crack propagating.
Recently, SyncMap pioneered an approach to learn complex structures from sequences as well as adapt to any changes in underlying structures. This is achieved by using only nonlinear dynamical equations inspired by neuron group behaviors, i.e., without loss functions. Here we propose Symmetrical SyncMap that goes beyond the original work to show how to create dynamical equations and attractor-repeller points which are stable over the long run, even dealing with imbalanced continual general chunking problems (CGCPs). The main idea is to apply equal updates from negative and positive feedback loops by symmetrical activation. We then introduce the concept of memory window to allow for more positive updates. Our algorithm surpasses or ties other unsupervised state-of-the-art baselines in all 12 imbalanced CGCPs with various difficulties, including dynamically changing ones. To verify its performance in real-world scenarios, we conduct experiments on several well-studied structure learning problems. The proposed method surpasses substantially other methods in 3 out of 4 scenarios, suggesting that symmetrical activation plays a critical role in uncovering topological structures and even hierarchies encoded in temporal data.
Composed image retrieval is a type of image retrieval task where the user provides a reference image as a starting point and specifies a text on how to shift from the starting point to the desired target image. However, most existing methods focus on the composition learning of text and reference images and oversimplify the text as a description, neglecting the inherent structure and the user's shifting intention of the texts. As a result, these methods typically take shortcuts that disregard the visual cue of the reference images. To address this issue, we reconsider the text as instructions and propose a Semantic Shift network (SSN) that explicitly decomposes the semantic shifts into two steps: from the reference image to the visual prototype and from the visual prototype to the target image. Specifically, SSN explicitly decomposes the instructions into two components: degradation and upgradation, where the degradation is used to picture the visual prototype from the reference image, while the upgradation is used to enrich the visual prototype into the final representations to retrieve the desired target image. The experimental results show that the proposed SSN demonstrates a significant improvement of 5.42% and 1.37% on the CIRR and FashionIQ datasets, respectively, and establishes a new state-of-the-art performance. Codes will be publicly available.
In this work, we present GraspFlow, a refinement approach for generating context-specific grasps. We formulate the problem of grasp synthesis as a sampling problem: we seek to sample from a context-conditioned probability distribution of successful grasps. However, this target distribution is unknown. As a solution, we devise a discriminator gradient-flow method to evolve grasps obtained from a simpler distribution in a manner that mimics sampling from the desired target distribution. Unlike existing approaches, GraspFlow is modular, allowing grasps that satisfy multiple criteria to be obtained simply by incorporating the relevant discriminators. It is also simple to implement, requiring minimal code given existing auto-differentiation libraries and suitable discriminators. Experiments show that GraspFlow generates stable and executable grasps on a real-world Panda robot for a diverse range of objects. In particular, in 60 trials on 20 different household objects, the first attempted grasp was successful 94% of the time, and 100% grasp success was achieved by the second grasp. Moreover, incorporating a functional discriminator for robot-human handover improved the functional aspect of the grasp by up to 33%.
Reservoir computing (RC), first applied to temporal signal processing, is a recurrent neural network in which neurons are randomly connected. Once initialized, the connection strengths remain unchanged. Such a simple structure turns RC into a non-linear dynamical system that maps low-dimensional inputs into a high-dimensional space. The model's rich dynamics, linear separability, and memory capacity then enable a simple linear readout to generate adequate responses for various applications. RC spans areas far beyond machine learning, since it has been shown that the complex dynamics can be realized in various physical hardware implementations and biological devices. This yields greater flexibility and shorter computation time. Moreover, the neuronal responses triggered by the model's dynamics shed light on understanding brain mechanisms that also exploit similar dynamical processes. While the literature on RC is vast and fragmented, here we conduct a unified review of RC's recent developments from machine learning to physics, biology, and neuroscience. We first review the early RC models, and then survey the state-of-the-art models and their applications. We further introduce studies on modeling the brain's mechanisms by RC. Finally, we offer new perspectives on RC development, including reservoir design, coding frameworks unification, physical RC implementations, and interaction between RC, cognitive neuroscience and evolution.
Workload prediction in multi-tenant edge cloud platforms (MT-ECP) is vital for efficient application deployment and resource provisioning. However, the heterogeneous application patterns, variable infrastructure performance, and frequent deployments in MT-ECP pose significant challenges for accurate and efficient workload prediction. Clustering-based methods for dynamic MT-ECP modeling often incur excessive costs due to the need to maintain numerous data clusters and models, which leads to excessive costs. Existing end-to-end time series prediction methods are challenging to provide consistent prediction performance in dynamic MT-ECP. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end framework with global pooling and static content awareness, DynEformer, to provide a unified workload prediction scheme for dynamic MT-ECP. Meticulously designed global pooling and information merging mechanisms can effectively identify and utilize global application patterns to drive local workload predictions. The integration of static content-aware mechanisms enhances model robustness in real-world scenarios. Through experiments on five real-world datasets, DynEformer achieved state-of-the-art in the dynamic scene of MT-ECP and provided a unified end-to-end prediction scheme for MT-ECP.
Compared with standard text, understanding dialogue is more challenging for machines as the dynamic and unexpected semantic changes in each turn. To model such inconsistent semantics, we propose a simple but effective Hierarchical Dialogue Understanding model, HiDialog. Specifically, we first insert multiple special tokens into a dialogue and propose the turn-level attention to learn turn embeddings hierarchically. Then, a heterogeneous graph module is leveraged to polish the learned embeddings. We evaluate our model on various dialogue understanding tasks including dialogue relation extraction, dialogue emotion recognition, and dialogue act classification. Results show that our simple approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on all three tasks above. All our source code is publicly available at https://github.com/ShawX825/HiDialog.