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Luc Van Gool

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LALM: Long-Term Action Anticipation with Language Models

Nov 29, 2023
Sanghwan Kim, Daoji Huang, Yongqin Xian, Otmar Hilliges, Luc Van Gool, Xi Wang

Understanding human activity is a crucial yet intricate task in egocentric vision, a field that focuses on capturing visual perspectives from the camera wearer's viewpoint. While traditional methods heavily rely on representation learning trained on extensive video data, there exists a significant limitation: obtaining effective video representations proves challenging due to the inherent complexity and variability in human activities.Furthermore, exclusive dependence on video-based learning may constrain a model's capability to generalize across long-tail classes and out-of-distribution scenarios. In this study, we introduce a novel approach for long-term action anticipation using language models (LALM), adept at addressing the complex challenges of long-term activity understanding without the need for extensive training. Our method incorporates an action recognition model to track previous action sequences and a vision-language model to articulate relevant environmental details. By leveraging the context provided by these past events, we devise a prompting strategy for action anticipation using large language models (LLMs). Moreover, we implement Maximal Marginal Relevance for example selection to facilitate in-context learning of the LLMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that LALM surpasses the state-of-the-art methods in the task of long-term action anticipation on the Ego4D benchmark. We further validate LALM on two additional benchmarks, affirming its capacity for generalization across intricate activities with different sets of taxonomies. These are achieved without specific fine-tuning.

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Continuous Pose for Monocular Cameras in Neural Implicit Representation

Nov 28, 2023
Qi Ma, Danda Pani Paudel, Ajad Chhatkuli, Luc Van Gool

In this paper, we showcase the effectiveness of optimizing monocular camera poses as a continuous function of time. The camera poses are represented using an implicit neural function which maps the given time to the corresponding camera pose. The mapped camera poses are then used for the downstream tasks where joint camera pose optimization is also required. While doing so, the network parameters -- that implicitly represent camera poses -- are optimized. We exploit the proposed method in four diverse experimental settings, namely, (1) NeRF from noisy poses; (2) NeRF from asynchronous Events; (3) Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (vSLAM); and (4) vSLAM with IMUs. In all four settings, the proposed method performs significantly better than the compared baselines and the state-of-the-art methods. Additionally, using the assumption of continuous motion, changes in pose may actually live in a manifold that has lower than 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) is also realized. We call this low DOF motion representation as the \emph{intrinsic motion} and use the approach in vSLAM settings, showing impressive camera tracking performance.

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SemiVL: Semi-Supervised Semantic Segmentation with Vision-Language Guidance

Nov 27, 2023
Lukas Hoyer, David Joseph Tan, Muhammad Ferjad Naeem, Luc Van Gool, Federico Tombari

In semi-supervised semantic segmentation, a model is trained with a limited number of labeled images along with a large corpus of unlabeled images to reduce the high annotation effort. While previous methods are able to learn good segmentation boundaries, they are prone to confuse classes with similar visual appearance due to the limited supervision. On the other hand, vision-language models (VLMs) are able to learn diverse semantic knowledge from image-caption datasets but produce noisy segmentation due to the image-level training. In SemiVL, we propose to integrate rich priors from VLM pre-training into semi-supervised semantic segmentation to learn better semantic decision boundaries. To adapt the VLM from global to local reasoning, we introduce a spatial fine-tuning strategy for label-efficient learning. Further, we design a language-guided decoder to jointly reason over vision and language. Finally, we propose to handle inherent ambiguities in class labels by providing the model with language guidance in the form of class definitions. We evaluate SemiVL on 4 semantic segmentation datasets, where it significantly outperforms previous semi-supervised methods. For instance, SemiVL improves the state-of-the-art by +13.5 mIoU on COCO with 232 annotated images and by +6.1 mIoU on Pascal VOC with 92 labels. Project page:

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Single-Model and Any-Modality for Video Object Tracking

Nov 27, 2023
Zongwei Wu, Jilai Zheng, Xiangxuan Ren, Florin-Alexandru Vasluianu, Chao Ma, Danda Pani Paudel, Luc Van Gool, Radu Timofte

In the realm of video object tracking, auxiliary modalities such as depth, thermal, or event data have emerged as valuable assets to complement the RGB trackers. In practice, most existing RGB trackers learn a single set of parameters to use them across datasets and applications. However, a similar single-model unification for multi-modality tracking presents several challenges. These challenges stem from the inherent heterogeneity of inputs -- each with modality-specific representations, the scarcity of multi-modal datasets, and the absence of all the modalities at all times. In this work, we introduce Un-Track, a \underline{Un}ified Tracker of a single set of parameters for any modality. To handle any modality, our method learns their common latent space through low-rank factorization and reconstruction techniques. More importantly, we use only the RGB-X pairs to learn the common latent space. This unique shared representation seamlessly binds all modalities together, enabling effective unification and accommodating any missing modality, all within a single transformer-based architecture and without the need for modality-specific fine-tuning. Our Un-Track achieves +8.1 absolute F-score gain, on the DepthTrack dataset, by introducing only +2.14 (over 21.50) GFLOPs with +6.6M (over 93M) parameters, through a simple yet efficient prompting strategy. Extensive comparisons on five benchmark datasets with different modalities show that Un-Track surpasses both SOTA unified trackers and modality-specific finetuned counterparts, validating our effectiveness and practicality.

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2D Feature Distillation for Weakly- and Semi-Supervised 3D Semantic Segmentation

Nov 27, 2023
Ozan Unal, Dengxin Dai, Lukas Hoyer, Yigit Baran Can, Luc Van Gool

As 3D perception problems grow in popularity and the need for large-scale labeled datasets for LiDAR semantic segmentation increase, new methods arise that aim to reduce the necessity for dense annotations by employing weakly-supervised training. However these methods continue to show weak boundary estimation and high false negative rates for small objects and distant sparse regions. We argue that such weaknesses can be compensated by using RGB images which provide a denser representation of the scene. We propose an image-guidance network (IGNet) which builds upon the idea of distilling high level feature information from a domain adapted synthetically trained 2D semantic segmentation network. We further utilize a one-way contrastive learning scheme alongside a novel mixing strategy called FOVMix, to combat the horizontal field-of-view mismatch between the two sensors and enhance the effects of image guidance. IGNet achieves state-of-the-art results for weakly-supervised LiDAR semantic segmentation on ScribbleKITTI, boasting up to 98% relative performance to fully supervised training with only 8% labeled points, while introducing no additional annotation burden or computational/memory cost during inference. Furthermore, we show that our contributions also prove effective for semi-supervised training, where IGNet claims state-of-the-art results on both ScribbleKITTI and SemanticKITTI.

* Accepted at WACV 2024 
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Lego: Learning to Disentangle and Invert Concepts Beyond Object Appearance in Text-to-Image Diffusion Models

Nov 23, 2023
Saman Motamed, Danda Pani Paudel, Luc Van Gool

Diffusion models have revolutionized generative content creation and text-to-image (T2I) diffusion models in particular have increased the creative freedom of users by allowing scene synthesis using natural language. T2I models excel at synthesizing concepts such as nouns, appearances, and styles. To enable customized content creation based on a few example images of a concept, methods such as Textual Inversion and DreamBooth invert the desired concept and enable synthesizing it in new scenes. However, inverting more general concepts that go beyond object appearance and style (adjectives and verbs) through natural language, remains a challenge. Two key characteristics of these concepts contribute to the limitations of current inversion methods. 1) Adjectives and verbs are entangled with nouns (subject) and can hinder appearance-based inversion methods, where the subject appearance leaks into the concept embedding and 2) describing such concepts often extends beyond single word embeddings (being frozen in ice, walking on a tightrope, etc.) that current methods do not handle. In this study, we introduce Lego, a textual inversion method designed to invert subject entangled concepts from a few example images. Lego disentangles concepts from their associated subjects using a simple yet effective Subject Separation step and employs a Context Loss that guides the inversion of single/multi-embedding concepts. In a thorough user study, Lego-generated concepts were preferred over 70% of the time when compared to the baseline. Additionally, visual question answering using a large language model suggested Lego-generated concepts are better aligned with the text description of the concept.

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3D Compression Using Neural Fields

Nov 21, 2023
Janis Postels, Yannick Strümpler, Klara Reichard, Luc Van Gool, Federico Tombari

Neural Fields (NFs) have gained momentum as a tool for compressing various data modalities - e.g. images and videos. This work leverages previous advances and proposes a novel NF-based compression algorithm for 3D data. We derive two versions of our approach - one tailored to watertight shapes based on Signed Distance Fields (SDFs) and, more generally, one for arbitrary non-watertight shapes using Unsigned Distance Fields (UDFs). We demonstrate that our method excels at geometry compression on 3D point clouds as well as meshes. Moreover, we show that, due to the NF formulation, it is straightforward to extend our compression algorithm to compress both geometry and attribute (e.g. color) of 3D data.

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Model-aware 3D Eye Gaze from Weak and Few-shot Supervisions

Nov 20, 2023
Nikola Popovic, Dimitrios Christodoulou, Danda Pani Paudel, Xi Wang, Luc Van Gool

The task of predicting 3D eye gaze from eye images can be performed either by (a) end-to-end learning for image-to-gaze mapping or by (b) fitting a 3D eye model onto images. The former case requires 3D gaze labels, while the latter requires eye semantics or landmarks to facilitate the model fitting. Although obtaining eye semantics and landmarks is relatively easy, fitting an accurate 3D eye model on them remains to be very challenging due to its ill-posed nature in general. On the other hand, obtaining large-scale 3D gaze data is cumbersome due to the required hardware setups and computational demands. In this work, we propose to predict 3D eye gaze from weak supervision of eye semantic segmentation masks and direct supervision of a few 3D gaze vectors. The proposed method combines the best of both worlds by leveraging large amounts of weak annotations--which are easy to obtain, and only a few 3D gaze vectors--which alleviate the difficulty of fitting 3D eye models on the semantic segmentation of eye images. Thus, the eye gaze vectors, used in the model fitting, are directly supervised using the few-shot gaze labels. Additionally, we propose a transformer-based network architecture, that serves as a solid baseline for our improvements. Our experiments in diverse settings illustrate the significant benefits of the proposed method, achieving about 5 degrees lower angular gaze error over the baseline, when only 0.05% 3D annotations of the training images are used. The source code is available at

* Accepted to ISMAR2023 as a poster paper 
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Deep Equilibrium Diffusion Restoration with Parallel Sampling

Nov 20, 2023
Jiezhang Cao, Yue Shi, Kai Zhang, Yulun Zhang, Radu Timofte, Luc Van Gool

Diffusion-based image restoration (IR) methods aim to use diffusion models to recover high-quality (HQ) images from degraded images and achieve promising performance. Due to the inherent property of diffusion models, most of these methods need long serial sampling chains to restore HQ images step-by-step. As a result, it leads to expensive sampling time and high computation costs. Moreover, such long sampling chains hinder understanding the relationship between the restoration results and the inputs since it is hard to compute the gradients in the whole chains. In this work, we aim to rethink the diffusion-based IR models through a different perspective, i.e., a deep equilibrium (DEQ) fixed point system. Specifically, we derive an analytical solution by modeling the entire sampling chain in diffusion-based IR models as a joint multivariate fixed point system. With the help of the analytical solution, we are able to conduct single-image sampling in a parallel way and restore HQ images without training. Furthermore, we compute fast gradients in DEQ and found that initialization optimization can boost performance and control the generation direction. Extensive experiments on benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method on typical IR tasks and real-world settings. The code and models will be made publicly available.

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MoVideo: Motion-Aware Video Generation with Diffusion Models

Nov 19, 2023
Jingyun Liang, Yuchen Fan, Kai Zhang, Radu Timofte, Luc Van Gool, Rakesh Ranjan

While recent years have witnessed great progress on using diffusion models for video generation, most of them are simple extensions of image generation frameworks, which fail to explicitly consider one of the key differences between videos and images, i.e., motion. In this paper, we propose a novel motion-aware video generation (MoVideo) framework that takes motion into consideration from two aspects: video depth and optical flow. The former regulates motion by per-frame object distances and spatial layouts, while the later describes motion by cross-frame correspondences that help in preserving fine details and improving temporal consistency. More specifically, given a key frame that exists or generated from text prompts, we first design a diffusion model with spatio-temporal modules to generate the video depth and the corresponding optical flows. Then, the video is generated in the latent space by another spatio-temporal diffusion model under the guidance of depth, optical flow-based warped latent video and the calculated occlusion mask. Lastly, we use optical flows again to align and refine different frames for better video decoding from the latent space to the pixel space. In experiments, MoVideo achieves state-of-the-art results in both text-to-video and image-to-video generation, showing promising prompt consistency, frame consistency and visual quality.

* project homepage: 
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