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Dong Yu

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MMC: Advancing Multimodal Chart Understanding with Large-scale Instruction Tuning

Nov 15, 2023
Fuxiao Liu, Xiaoyang Wang, Wenlin Yao, Jianshu Chen, Kaiqiang Song, Sangwoo Cho, Yaser Yacoob, Dong Yu

With the rapid development of large language models (LLMs) and their integration into large multimodal models (LMMs), there has been impressive progress in zero-shot completion of user-oriented vision-language tasks. However, a gap remains in the domain of chart image understanding due to the distinct abstract components in charts. To address this, we introduce a large-scale MultiModal Chart Instruction (MMC-Instruction) dataset comprising 600k instances supporting diverse tasks and chart types. Leveraging this data, we develop MultiModal Chart Assistant (MMCA), an LMM that achieves state-of-the-art performance on existing chart QA benchmarks. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive evaluation of LMM chart understanding, we also propose a MultiModal Chart Benchmark (MMC-Benchmark), a comprehensive human-annotated benchmark with 9 distinct tasks evaluating reasoning capabilities over charts. Extensive experiments on MMC-Benchmark reveal the limitations of existing LMMs on correctly interpreting charts, even for the most recent GPT-4V model. Our work provides an instruction-tuning methodology and benchmark to advance multimodal understanding of charts.

* 10 pages, 21 figures 
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Chain-of-Note: Enhancing Robustness in Retrieval-Augmented Language Models

Nov 15, 2023
Wenhao Yu, Hongming Zhang, Xiaoman Pan, Kaixin Ma, Hongwei Wang, Dong Yu

Retrieval-augmented language models (RALMs) represent a substantial advancement in the capabilities of large language models, notably in reducing factual hallucination by leveraging external knowledge sources. However, the reliability of the retrieved information is not always guaranteed. The retrieval of irrelevant data can lead to misguided responses, and potentially causing the model to overlook its inherent knowledge, even when it possesses adequate information to address the query. Moreover, standard RALMs often struggle to assess whether they possess adequate knowledge, both intrinsic and retrieved, to provide an accurate answer. In situations where knowledge is lacking, these systems should ideally respond with "unknown" when the answer is unattainable. In response to these challenges, we introduces Chain-of-Noting (CoN), a novel approach aimed at improving the robustness of RALMs in facing noisy, irrelevant documents and in handling unknown scenarios. The core idea of CoN is to generate sequential reading notes for retrieved documents, enabling a thorough evaluation of their relevance to the given question and integrating this information to formulate the final answer. We employed ChatGPT to create training data for CoN, which was subsequently trained on an LLaMa-2 7B model. Our experiments across four open-domain QA benchmarks show that RALMs equipped with CoN significantly outperform standard RALMs. Notably, CoN achieves an average improvement of +7.9 in EM score given entirely noisy retrieved documents and +10.5 in rejection rates for real-time questions that fall outside the pre-training knowledge scope.

* Preprint 
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A Closer Look at the Self-Verification Abilities of Large Language Models in Logical Reasoning

Nov 14, 2023
Ruixin Hong, Hongming Zhang, Xinyu Pang, Dong Yu, Changshui Zhang

Logical reasoning has been an ongoing pursuit in the field of AI. Despite significant advancements made by large language models (LLMs), they still struggle with complex logical reasoning problems. To enhance reasoning performance, one promising direction is scalable oversight, which requires LLMs to identify their own errors and then improve by themselves. Various self-verification methods have been proposed in pursuit of this goal. Nevertheless, whether existing models understand their own errors well is still under investigation. In this paper, we take a closer look at the self-verification abilities of LLMs in the context of logical reasoning, focusing on their ability to identify logical fallacies accurately. We introduce a dataset, FALLACIES, containing 232 types of reasoning fallacies categorized in a hierarchical taxonomy. By conducting exhaustive experiments on FALLACIES, we obtain comprehensive and detailed analyses of a series of models on their verification abilities. Our main findings suggest that existing LLMs could struggle to identify fallacious reasoning steps accurately and may fall short of guaranteeing the validity of self-verification methods. Drawing from these observations, we offer suggestions for future research and practical applications of self-verification methods.

* work in progress 
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TencentLLMEval: A Hierarchical Evaluation of Real-World Capabilities for Human-Aligned LLMs

Nov 09, 2023
Shuyi Xie, Wenlin Yao, Yong Dai, Shaobo Wang, Donlin Zhou, Lifeng Jin, Xinhua Feng, Pengzhi Wei, Yujie Lin, Zhichao Hu, Dong Yu, Zhengyou Zhang, Jing Nie, Yuhong Liu

Large language models (LLMs) have shown impressive capabilities across various natural language tasks. However, evaluating their alignment with human preferences remains a challenge. To this end, we propose a comprehensive human evaluation framework to assess LLMs' proficiency in following instructions on diverse real-world tasks. We construct a hierarchical task tree encompassing 7 major areas covering over 200 categories and over 800 tasks, which covers diverse capabilities such as question answering, reasoning, multiturn dialogue, and text generation, to evaluate LLMs in a comprehensive and in-depth manner. We also design detailed evaluation standards and processes to facilitate consistent, unbiased judgments from human evaluators. A test set of over 3,000 instances is released, spanning different difficulty levels and knowledge domains. Our work provides a standardized methodology to evaluate human alignment in LLMs for both English and Chinese. We also analyze the feasibility of automating parts of evaluation with a strong LLM (GPT-4). Our framework supports a thorough assessment of LLMs as they are integrated into real-world applications. We have made publicly available the task tree, TencentLLMEval dataset, and evaluation methodology which have been demonstrated as effective in assessing the performance of Tencent Hunyuan LLMs. By doing so, we aim to facilitate the benchmarking of advances in the development of safe and human-aligned LLMs.

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Sub-Sentence Encoder: Contrastive Learning of Propositional Semantic Representations

Nov 07, 2023
Sihao Chen, Hongming Zhang, Tong Chen, Ben Zhou, Wenhao Yu, Dian Yu, Baolin Peng, Hongwei Wang, Dan Roth, Dong Yu

We introduce sub-sentence encoder, a contrastively-learned contextual embedding model for fine-grained semantic representation of text. In contrast to the standard practice with sentence embeddings, where the meaning of an entire sequence of text is encoded into a fixed-length vector, the sub-sentence encoder learns to produce distinct contextual embeddings corresponding to different atomic propositions, i.e. atomic units of meaning expressed within a text sequence. The sub-sentence embeddings are contrastively learned to recognize (inferred) semantic equivalence between propositions across different text sequences. Our experiments show the effectiveness of sub-sentence encoders in applications, such as retrieving supporting facts for fine-grained text attribution or recognizing the conditional semantic similarity between texts. In practice, we demonstrate that sub-sentence encoders keep the same level of inference cost and space complexity compared to sentence encoders.

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RIR-SF: Room Impulse Response Based Spatial Feature for Multi-channel Multi-talker ASR

Oct 31, 2023
Yiwen Shao, Shi-Xiong Zhang, Dong Yu

Multi-channel multi-talker automatic speech recognition (ASR) presents ongoing challenges within the speech community, particularly when confronted with significant reverberation effects. In this study, we introduce a novel approach involving the convolution of overlapping speech signals with the room impulse response (RIR) corresponding to the target speaker's transmission to a microphone array. This innovative technique yields a novel spatial feature known as the RIR-SF. Through a comprehensive comparison with the previously established state-of-the-art 3D spatial feature, both theoretical analysis and experimental results substantiate the superiority of our proposed RIR-SF. We demonstrate that the RIR-SF outperforms existing methods, leading to a remarkable 21.3\% relative reduction in the Character Error Rate (CER) in multi-channel multi-talker ASR systems. Importantly, this novel feature exhibits robustness in the face of strong reverberation, surpassing the limitations of previous approaches.

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UniX-Encoder: A Universal $X$-Channel Speech Encoder for Ad-Hoc Microphone Array Speech Processing

Oct 25, 2023
Zili Huang, Yiwen Shao, Shi-Xiong Zhang, Dong Yu

The speech field is evolving to solve more challenging scenarios, such as multi-channel recordings with multiple simultaneous talkers. Given the many types of microphone setups out there, we present the UniX-Encoder. It's a universal encoder designed for multiple tasks, and worked with any microphone array, in both solo and multi-talker environments. Our research enhances previous multi-channel speech processing efforts in four key areas: 1) Adaptability: Contrasting traditional models constrained to certain microphone array configurations, our encoder is universally compatible. 2) Multi-Task Capability: Beyond the single-task focus of previous systems, UniX-Encoder acts as a robust upstream model, adeptly extracting features for diverse tasks including ASR and speaker recognition. 3) Self-Supervised Training: The encoder is trained without requiring labeled multi-channel data. 4) End-to-End Integration: In contrast to models that first beamform then process single-channels, our encoder offers an end-to-end solution, bypassing explicit beamforming or separation. To validate its effectiveness, we tested the UniX-Encoder on a synthetic multi-channel dataset from the LibriSpeech corpus. Across tasks like speech recognition and speaker diarization, our encoder consistently outperformed combinations like the WavLM model with the BeamformIt frontend.

* Submitted to ICASSP 2024 
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On the Dimensionality of Sentence Embeddings

Oct 23, 2023
Hongwei Wang, Hongming Zhang, Dong Yu

Learning sentence embeddings is a fundamental problem in natural language processing. While existing research primarily focuses on enhancing the quality of sentence embeddings, the exploration of sentence embedding dimensions is limited. Here we present a comprehensive and empirical analysis of the dimensionality of sentence embeddings. First, we demonstrate that the optimal dimension of sentence embeddings is usually smaller than the default value. Subsequently, to compress the dimension of sentence embeddings with minimum performance degradation, we identify two components contributing to the overall performance loss: the encoder's performance loss and the pooler's performance loss. Therefore, we propose a two-step training method for sentence representation learning models, wherein the encoder and the pooler are optimized separately to mitigate the overall performance loss in low-dimension scenarios. Experimental results on seven STS tasks and seven sentence classification tasks demonstrate that our method significantly improves the performance of low-dimensional sentence embeddings.

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Bridging the Gap between Synthetic and Authentic Images for Multimodal Machine Translation

Oct 20, 2023
Wenyu Guo, Qingkai Fang, Dong Yu, Yang Feng

Multimodal machine translation (MMT) simultaneously takes the source sentence and a relevant image as input for translation. Since there is no paired image available for the input sentence in most cases, recent studies suggest utilizing powerful text-to-image generation models to provide image inputs. Nevertheless, synthetic images generated by these models often follow different distributions compared to authentic images. Consequently, using authentic images for training and synthetic images for inference can introduce a distribution shift, resulting in performance degradation during inference. To tackle this challenge, in this paper, we feed synthetic and authentic images to the MMT model, respectively. Then we minimize the gap between the synthetic and authentic images by drawing close the input image representations of the Transformer Encoder and the output distributions of the Transformer Decoder. Therefore, we mitigate the distribution disparity introduced by the synthetic images during inference, thereby freeing the authentic images from the inference process.Experimental results show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Multi30K En-De and En-Fr datasets, while remaining independent of authentic images during inference.

* Accepted to EMNLP 2023 main conference 
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A High Fidelity and Low Complexity Neural Audio Coding

Oct 17, 2023
Wenzhe Liu, Wei Xiao, Meng Wang, Shan Yang, Yupeng Shi, Yuyong Kang, Dan Su, Shidong Shang, Dong Yu

Audio coding is an essential module in the real-time communication system. Neural audio codecs can compress audio samples with a low bitrate due to the strong modeling and generative capabilities of deep neural networks. To address the poor high-frequency expression and high computational cost and storage consumption, we proposed an integrated framework that utilizes a neural network to model wide-band components and adopts traditional signal processing to compress high-band components according to psychological hearing knowledge. Inspired by auditory perception theory, a perception-based loss function is designed to improve harmonic modeling. Besides, generative adversarial network (GAN) compression is proposed for the first time for neural audio codecs. Our method is superior to prior advanced neural codecs across subjective and objective metrics and allows real-time inference on desktop and mobile.

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