The basic principle of the patch-matching based style transfer is to substitute the patches of the content image feature maps by the closest patches from the style image feature maps. Since the finite features harvested from one single aesthetic style image are inadequate to represent the rich textures of the content natural image, existing techniques treat the full-channel style feature patches as simple signal tensors and create new style feature patches via signal-level fusion, which ignore the implicit diversities existed in style features and thus fail for generating better stylised results. In this paper, we propose a Retinex theory guided, channel-grouping based patch swap technique to solve the above challenges. Channel-grouping strategy groups the style feature maps into surface and texture channels, which prevents the winner-takes-all problem. Retinex theory based decomposition controls a more stable channel code rate generation. In addition, we provide complementary fusion and multi-scale generation strategy to prevent unexpected black area and over-stylised results respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing techniques in providing more style-consistent textures while keeping the content fidelity.
Catastrophic forgetting of previous knowledge is a critical issue in continual learning typically handled through various regularization strategies. However, existing methods struggle especially when several incremental steps are performed. In this paper, we extend our previous approach (RECALL) and tackle forgetting by exploiting unsupervised web-crawled data to retrieve examples of old classes from online databases. Differently from the original approach that did not perform any evaluation of the web data, here we introduce two novel approaches based on adversarial learning and adaptive thresholding to select from web data only samples strongly resembling the statistics of the no longer available training ones. Furthermore, we improved the pseudo-labeling scheme to achieve a more accurate labeling of web data that also consider classes being learned in the current step. Experimental results show that this enhanced approach achieves remarkable results, especially when multiple incremental learning steps are performed.
Federated Learning (FL) has emerged as a promising approach to enable collaborative learning among multiple clients while preserving data privacy. However, cross-domain FL tasks, where clients possess data from different domains or distributions, remain a challenging problem due to the inherent heterogeneity. In this paper, we present UNIDEAL, a novel FL algorithm specifically designed to tackle the challenges of cross-domain scenarios and heterogeneous model architectures. The proposed method introduces Adjustable Teacher-Student Mutual Evaluation Curriculum Learning, which significantly enhances the effectiveness of knowledge distillation in FL settings. We conduct extensive experiments on various datasets, comparing UNIDEAL with state-of-the-art baselines. Our results demonstrate that UNIDEAL achieves superior performance in terms of both model accuracy and communication efficiency. Additionally, we provide a convergence analysis of the algorithm, showing a convergence rate of O(1/T) under non-convex conditions.
Despite substantial advances, single-image super-resolution (SISR) is always in a dilemma to reconstruct high-quality images with limited information from one input image, especially in realistic scenarios. In this paper, we establish a large-scale real-world burst super-resolution dataset, i.e., RealBSR, to explore the faithful reconstruction of image details from multiple frames. Furthermore, we introduce a Federated Burst Affinity network (FBAnet) to investigate non-trivial pixel-wise displacements among images under real-world image degradation. Specifically, rather than using pixel-wise alignment, our FBAnet employs a simple homography alignment from a structural geometry aspect and a Federated Affinity Fusion (FAF) strategy to aggregate the complementary information among frames. Those fused informative representations are fed to a Transformer-based module of burst representation decoding. Besides, we have conducted extensive experiments on two versions of our datasets, i.e., RealBSR-RAW and RealBSR-RGB. Experimental results demonstrate that our FBAnet outperforms existing state-of-the-art burst SR methods and also achieves visually-pleasant SR image predictions with model details. Our dataset, codes, and models are publicly available at https://github.com/yjsunnn/FBANet.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have garnered considerable interest within both academic and industrial. Yet, the application of LLMs to graph data remains under-explored. In this study, we evaluate the capabilities of four LLMs in addressing several analytical problems with graph data. We employ four distinct evaluation metrics: Comprehension, Correctness, Fidelity, and Rectification. Our results show that: 1) LLMs effectively comprehend graph data in natural language and reason with graph topology. 2) GPT models can generate logical and coherent results, outperforming alternatives in correctness. 3) All examined LLMs face challenges in structural reasoning, with techniques like zero-shot chain-of-thought and few-shot prompting showing diminished efficacy. 4) GPT models often produce erroneous answers in multi-answer tasks, raising concerns in fidelity. 5) GPT models exhibit elevated confidence in their outputs, potentially hindering their rectification capacities. Notably, GPT-4 has demonstrated the capacity to rectify responses from GPT-3.5-turbo and its own previous iterations. The code is available at: https://github.com/Ayame1006/LLMtoGraph.
The objective of Classic Referring Expression Comprehension (REC) is to produce a bounding box corresponding to the object mentioned in a given textual description. Commonly, existing datasets and techniques in classic REC are tailored for expressions that pertain to a single target, meaning a sole expression is linked to one specific object. Expressions that refer to multiple targets or involve no specific target have not been taken into account. This constraint hinders the practical applicability of REC. This study introduces a new benchmark termed as Generalized Referring Expression Comprehension (GREC). This benchmark extends the classic REC by permitting expressions to describe any number of target objects. To achieve this goal, we have built the first large-scale GREC dataset named gRefCOCO. This dataset encompasses a range of expressions: those referring to multiple targets, expressions with no specific target, and the single-target expressions. The design of GREC and gRefCOCO ensures smooth compatibility with classic REC. The proposed gRefCOCO dataset, a GREC method implementation code, and GREC evaluation code are available at https://github.com/henghuiding/gRefCOCO.
This paper strives for motion expressions guided video segmentation, which focuses on segmenting objects in video content based on a sentence describing the motion of the objects. Existing referring video object datasets typically focus on salient objects and use language expressions that contain excessive static attributes that could potentially enable the target object to be identified in a single frame. These datasets downplay the importance of motion in video content for language-guided video object segmentation. To investigate the feasibility of using motion expressions to ground and segment objects in videos, we propose a large-scale dataset called MeViS, which contains numerous motion expressions to indicate target objects in complex environments. We benchmarked 5 existing referring video object segmentation (RVOS) methods and conducted a comprehensive comparison on the MeViS dataset. The results show that current RVOS methods cannot effectively address motion expression-guided video segmentation. We further analyze the challenges and propose a baseline approach for the proposed MeViS dataset. The goal of our benchmark is to provide a platform that enables the development of effective language-guided video segmentation algorithms that leverage motion expressions as a primary cue for object segmentation in complex video scenes. The proposed MeViS dataset has been released at https://henghuiding.github.io/MeViS.
Parking occupancy estimation holds significant potential in facilitating parking resource management and mitigating traffic congestion. Existing approaches employ robotic systems to detect the occupancy status of individual parking spaces and primarily focus on enhancing detection accuracy through perception pipelines. However, these methods often overlook the crucial aspect of robot path planning, which can hinder the accurate estimation of the entire parking area. In light of these limitations, we introduce the problem of informative path planning for parking occupancy estimation using autonomous vehicles and formulate it as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) task. Then, we develop an occupancy state transition model and introduce a Bayes filter to estimate occupancy based on noisy sensor measurements. Subsequently, we propose the Monte Carlo Bayes Filter Tree, a computationally efficient algorithm that leverages progressive widening to generate informative paths. We demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the benchmark methods in diverse simulation environments, effectively striking a balance between optimality and computational efficiency.
Interleaved training has been studied for single-user and multi-user massive MIMO downlink with either fully-digital or hybrid beamforming. However, the impact of channel correlation on its average training overhead is rarely addressed. In this paper, we explore the channel correlation to improve the interleaved training for single-user massive MIMO downlink. For the beam-domain interleaved training, we propose a modified scheme by optimizing the beam training codebook. The basic antenna-domain interleaved training is also improved by dynamically adjusting the training order of the base station (BS) antennas during the training process based on the values of the already trained channels. Exact and simplified approximate expressions of the average training length are derived in closed-form for the basic and modified beam-domain schemes and the basic antenna-domain scheme in correlated channels. For the modified antenna-domain scheme, a deep neural network (DNN)-based approximation is provided for fast performance evaluation. Analytical results and simulations verify the accuracy of our derived training length expressions and explicitly reveal the impact of system parameters on the average training length. In addition, the modified beam/antenna-domain schemes are shown to have a shorter average training length compared to the basic schemes.