Advances in space exploration have led to an explosion of tasks. Conventionally, these tasks are offloaded to ground servers for enhanced computing capability, or to adjacent low-earth-orbit satellites for reduced transmission delay. However, the overall delay is determined by both computation and transmission costs. The existing offloading schemes, while being highly-optimized for either costs, can be abysmal for the overall performance. The computation-transmission cost dilemma is yet to be solved. In this paper, we propose an adaptive offloading scheme to reduce the overall delay. The core idea is to jointly model and optimize the transmission-computation process over the entire network. Specifically, to represent the computation state migrations, we generalize graph nodes with multiple states. In this way, the joint optimization problem is transformed into a shortest path problem over the state graph. We further provide an extended Dijkstra's algorithm for efficient path finding. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the ground and one-hop offloading schemes by up to 37.56% and 39.35% respectively on SpaceCube v2.0.
In this manuscript, we present an energy-efficient alternating optimization framework based on the multi-antenna ambient backscatter communication (AmBSC) assisted cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) for next-generation (NG) internet-of-things (IoT) enabled communication networks. Specifically, the energy-efficiency maximization is achieved for the considered AmBSC-enabled multi-cluster cooperative IoT NOMA system by optimizing the active-beamforming vector and power-allocation coefficients (PAC) of IoT NOMA users at the transmitter, as well as passive-beamforming vector at the multi-antenna assisted backscatter node. Usually, increasing the number of IoT NOMA users in each cluster results in inter-cluster interference (ICI) (among different clusters) and intra-cluster interference (among IoT NOMA users). To combat the impact of ICI, we exploit a zero-forcing (ZF) based active-beamforming, as well as an efficient clustering technique at the source node. Further, the effect of intra-cluster interference is mitigated by exploiting an efficient power-allocation policy that determines the PAC of IoT NOMA users under the quality-of-service (QoS), cooperation, SIC decoding, and power-budget constraints. Moreover, the considered non-convex passive-beamforming problem is transformed into a standard semi-definite programming (SDP) problem by exploiting the successive-convex approximation (SCA) approximation, as well as the difference of convex (DC) programming, where Rank-1 solution of passive-beamforming is obtained based on the penalty-based method. Furthermore, the numerical analysis of simulation results demonstrates that the proposed energy-efficiency maximization algorithm exhibits an efficient performance by achieving convergence within only a few iterations.
In this manuscript, we propose an optimization framework to maximize the energy efficiency of the BSC-enabled cooperative NOMA system under imperfect successive interference cancellation (SIC) decoding at the receiver. Specifically, the energy efficiency of the system is maximized by optimizing the transmit power of the source, power allocation coefficients (PAC) of NOMA users, and power of the relay node. A low-complexity energy-efficient alternating optimization framework is introduced which simultaneously optimizes the transmit power of the source, PAC, and power of the relay node by considering the quality of service (QoS), power budget, and cooperation constraints under the imperfect SIC decoding. Subsequently, a joint channel coding framework is provided to enhance the performance of far user which has no direct communication link with the base station (BS) and has bad channel conditions. In the destination node, the far user data is jointly decoded using a Sum-product algorithm (SPA) based joint iterative decoder realized by jointly-designed Quasi-cyclic Low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes obtained from cyclic balanced sampling plans excluding contiguous units (CBSEC). Simulation results evince that the proposed BSC-enabled cooperative NOMA system outperforms its counterpart by providing an efficient performance in terms of energy efficiency. Also, proposed jointly-designed QC-LDPC codes provide an excellent bit-error-rate (BER) performance by jointly decoding the far user data for considered BSC cooperative NOMA system with only a few decoding iterations under Rayleigh-fading transmission.
Occlusion poses a major challenge for person re-identification (ReID). Existing approaches typically rely on outside tools to infer visible body parts, which may be suboptimal in terms of both computational efficiency and ReID accuracy. In particular, they may fail when facing complex occlusions, such as those between pedestrians. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a novel method named Quality-aware Part Models (QPM) for occlusion-robust ReID. First, we propose to jointly learn part features and predict part quality scores. As no quality annotation is available, we introduce a strategy that automatically assigns low scores to occluded body parts, thereby weakening the impact of occluded body parts on ReID results. Second, based on the predicted part quality scores, we propose a novel identity-aware spatial attention (ISA) module. In this module, a coarse identity-aware feature is utilized to highlight pixels of the target pedestrian, so as to handle the occlusion between pedestrians. Third, we design an adaptive and efficient approach for generating global features from common non-occluded regions with respect to each image pair. This design is crucial, but is often ignored by existing methods. QPM has three key advantages: 1) it does not rely on any outside tools in either the training or inference stages; 2) it handles occlusions caused by both objects and other pedestrians;3) it is highly computationally efficient. Experimental results on four popular databases for occluded ReID demonstrate that QPM consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods by significant margins. The code of QPM will be released.
This paper investigates the application of physical-layer network coding (PNC) to Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT) where a controller and a robot are out of each other's transmission range, and they exchange messages with the assistance of a relay. We particularly focus on a scenario where the controller has more transmitted information, and the channel of the controller is stronger than that of the robot. To reduce the communication latency, we propose an asymmetric transmission scheme where the controller and robot transmit different amount of information in the uplink of PNC simultaneously. To achieve this, the controller chooses a higher order modulation. In addition, the both users apply channel codes to guarantee the reliability. A problem is a superimposed symbol at the relay contains different amount of source information from the two end users. It is thus hard for the relay to deduce meaningful network-coded messages by applying the current PNC decoding techniques which require the end users to transmit the same amount of information. To solve this problem, we propose a lattice-based scheme where the two users encode-and-modulate their information in lattices with different lattice construction levels. Our design is versatile on that the two end users can freely choose their modulation orders based on their channel power, and the design is applicable for arbitrary channel codes.
The gossip-based distributed algorithms are widely used to solve decentralized optimization problems in various multi-agent applications, while they are generally vulnerable to data injection attacks by internal malicious agents as each agent locally estimates its decent direction without an authorized supervision. In this work, we explore the application of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to detect internal attacks. We show that a general neural network is particularly suitable for detecting and localizing the malicious agents, as they can effectively explore nonlinear relationship underlying the collected data. Moreover, we propose to adopt one of the state-of-art approaches in federated learning, i.e., a collaborative peer-to-peer machine learning protocol, to facilitate training our neural network models by gossip exchanges. This advanced approach is expected to make our model more robust to challenges with insufficient training data, or mismatched test data. In our simulations, a least-squared problem is considered to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of AI-based methods. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed AI-based methods are beneficial to improve performance of detecting and localizing malicious agents over score-based methods, and the peer-to-peer neural network model is indeed robust to target issues.
Real world traffic sign recognition is an important step towards building autonomous vehicles, most of which highly dependent on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). Recent studies demonstrated that DNNs are surprisingly susceptible to adversarial examples. Many attack methods have been proposed to understand and generate adversarial examples, such as gradient based attack, score based attack, decision based attack, and transfer based attacks. However, most of these algorithms are ineffective in real-world road sign attack, because (1) iteratively learning perturbations for each frame is not realistic for a fast moving car and (2) most optimization algorithms traverse all pixels equally without considering their diverse contribution. To alleviate these problems, this paper proposes the targeted attention attack (TAA) method for real world road sign attack. Specifically, we have made the following contributions: (1) we leverage the soft attention map to highlight those important pixels and skip those zero-contributed areas - this also helps to generate natural perturbations, (2) we design an efficient universal attack that optimizes a single perturbation/noise based on a set of training images under the guidance of the pre-trained attention map, (3) we design a simple objective function that can be easily optimized, (4) we evaluate the effectiveness of TAA on real world data sets. Experimental results validate that the TAA method improves the attack successful rate (nearly 10%) and reduces the perturbation loss (about a quarter) compared with the popular RP2 method. Additionally, our TAA also provides good properties, e.g., transferability and generalization capability. We provide code and data to ensure the reproducibility: https://github.com/AdvAttack/RoadSignAttack.
In this paper, we propose a vector total variation (VTV) of feature image model for image restoration. The VTV imposes different smoothing powers on different features (e.g. edges and cartoons) based on choosing various regularization parameters. Thus, the model can simultaneously preserve edges and remove noises. Next, the existence of solution for the model is proved and the split Bregman algorithm is used to solve the model. At last, we use the wavelet filter banks to explicitly define the feature operator and present some experimental results to show its advantage over the related methods in both quality and efficiency.
Early fault diagnosis in complex mechanical systems such as gearbox has always been a great challenge, even with the recent development in deep neural networks. The performance of a classic fault diagnosis system predominantly depends on the features extracted and the classifier subsequently applied. Although a large number of attempts have been made regarding feature extraction techniques, the methods require great human involvements are heavily depend on domain expertise and may thus be non-representative and biased from application to application. On the other hand, while the deep neural networks based approaches feature adaptive feature extractions and inherent classifications, they usually require a substantial set of training data and thus hinder their usage for engineering applications with limited training data such as gearbox fault diagnosis. This paper develops a deep convolutional neural network-based transfer learning approach that not only entertains pre-processing free adaptive feature extractions, but also requires only a small set of training data. The proposed approach performs gear fault diagnosis using pre-processing free raw accelerometer data and experiments with various sizes of training data were conducted. The superiority of the proposed approach is revealed by comparing the performance with other methods such as locally trained convolution neural network and angle-frequency analysis based support vector machine. The achieved accuracy indicates that the proposed approach is not only viable and robust, but also has the potential to be readily applicable to other fault diagnosis practices.