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Bin Wang

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Knowledge Graph Embedding: An Overview

Sep 21, 2023
Xiou Ge, Yun-Cheng Wang, Bin Wang, C. -C. Jay Kuo

Many mathematical models have been leveraged to design embeddings for representing Knowledge Graph (KG) entities and relations for link prediction and many downstream tasks. These mathematically-inspired models are not only highly scalable for inference in large KGs, but also have many explainable advantages in modeling different relation patterns that can be validated through both formal proofs and empirical results. In this paper, we make a comprehensive overview of the current state of research in KG completion. In particular, we focus on two main branches of KG embedding (KGE) design: 1) distance-based methods and 2) semantic matching-based methods. We discover the connections between recently proposed models and present an underlying trend that might help researchers invent novel and more effective models. Next, we delve into CompoundE and CompoundE3D, which draw inspiration from 2D and 3D affine operations, respectively. They encompass a broad spectrum of techniques including distance-based and semantic-based methods. We will also discuss an emerging approach for KG completion which leverages pre-trained language models (PLMs) and textual descriptions of entities and relations and offer insights into the integration of KGE embedding methods with PLMs for KG completion.

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Deep Mutual Learning across Task Towers for Effective Multi-Task Recommender Learning

Sep 19, 2023
Yi Ren, Ying Du, Bin Wang, Shenzheng Zhang

Recommender systems usually leverage multi-task learning methods to simultaneously optimize several objectives because of the multi-faceted user behavior data. The typical way of conducting multi-task learning is to establish appropriate parameter sharing across multiple tasks at lower layers while reserving a separate task tower for each task at upper layers. Since the task towers exert direct impact on the prediction results, we argue that the architecture of standalone task towers is sub-optimal for promoting positive knowledge sharing. Accordingly, we propose the framework of Deep Mutual Learning across task towers, which is compatible with various backbone multi-task networks. Extensive offline experiments and online AB tests are conducted to evaluate and verify the proposed approach's effectiveness.

* ORSUM@ACM RecSys 2023, 6th Workshop on Online Recommender Systems and User Modeling, jointly with the 17th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, September 19th, 2023, Singapore  
* 6 pages 
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Domain Generalization with Fourier Transform and Soft Thresholding

Sep 18, 2023
Hongyi Pan, Bin Wang, Zheyuan Zhan, Xin Zhu, Debesh Jha, Ahmet Enis Cetin, Concetto Spampinato, Ulas Bagci

Domain generalization aims to train models on multiple source domains so that they can generalize well to unseen target domains. Among many domain generalization methods, Fourier-transform-based domain generalization methods have gained popularity primarily because they exploit the power of Fourier transformation to capture essential patterns and regularities in the data, making the model more robust to domain shifts. The mainstream Fourier-transform-based domain generalization swaps the Fourier amplitude spectrum while preserving the phase spectrum between the source and the target images. However, it neglects background interference in the amplitude spectrum. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a soft-thresholding function in the Fourier domain. We apply this newly designed algorithm to retinal fundus image segmentation, which is important for diagnosing ocular diseases but the neural network's performance can degrade across different sources due to domain shifts. The proposed technique basically enhances fundus image augmentation by eliminating small values in the Fourier domain and providing better generalization. The innovative nature of the soft thresholding fused with Fourier-transform-based domain generalization improves neural network models' performance by reducing the target images' background interference significantly. Experiments on public data validate our approach's effectiveness over conventional and state-of-the-art methods with superior segmentation metrics.

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Robust Backdoor Attacks on Object Detection in Real World

Sep 16, 2023
Yaguan Qian, Boyuan Ji, Shuke He, Shenhui Huang, Xiang Ling, Bin Wang, Wei Wang

Deep learning models are widely deployed in many applications, such as object detection in various security fields. However, these models are vulnerable to backdoor attacks. Most backdoor attacks were intensively studied on classified models, but little on object detection. Previous works mainly focused on the backdoor attack in the digital world, but neglect the real world. Especially, the backdoor attack's effect in the real world will be easily influenced by physical factors like distance and illumination. In this paper, we proposed a variable-size backdoor trigger to adapt to the different sizes of attacked objects, overcoming the disturbance caused by the distance between the viewing point and attacked object. In addition, we proposed a backdoor training named malicious adversarial training, enabling the backdoor object detector to learn the feature of the trigger with physical noise. The experiment results show this robust backdoor attack (RBA) could enhance the attack success rate in the real world.

* 22 pages, 13figures 
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VIGC: Visual Instruction Generation and Correction

Sep 11, 2023
Bin Wang, Fan Wu, Xiao Han, Jiahui Peng, Huaping Zhong, Pan Zhang, Xiaoyi Dong, Weijia Li, Wei Li, Jiaqi Wang, Conghui He

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The integration of visual encoders and large language models (LLMs) has driven recent progress in multimodal large language models (MLLMs). However, the scarcity of high-quality instruction-tuning data for vision-language tasks remains a challenge. The current leading paradigm, such as LLaVA, relies on language-only GPT-4 to generate data, which requires pre-annotated image captions and detection bounding boxes, suffering from understanding image details. A practical solution to this problem would be to utilize the available multimodal large language models (MLLMs) to generate instruction data for vision-language tasks. However, it's worth noting that the currently accessible MLLMs are not as powerful as their LLM counterparts, as they tend to produce inadequate responses and generate false information. As a solution for addressing the current issue, this paper proposes the Visual Instruction Generation and Correction (VIGC) framework that enables multimodal large language models to generate instruction-tuning data and progressively enhance its quality on-the-fly. Specifically, Visual Instruction Generation (VIG) guides the vision-language model to generate diverse instruction-tuning data. To ensure generation quality, Visual Instruction Correction (VIC) adopts an iterative update mechanism to correct any inaccuracies in data produced by VIG, effectively reducing the risk of hallucination. Leveraging the diverse, high-quality data generated by VIGC, we finetune mainstream models and validate data quality based on various evaluations. Experimental results demonstrate that VIGC not only compensates for the shortcomings of language-only data generation methods, but also effectively enhances the benchmark performance. The models, datasets, and code are available at

* Project Website:, Code and Pretrained Model:, Dataset: 
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MLLM-DataEngine: An Iterative Refinement Approach for MLLM

Sep 11, 2023
Zhiyuan Zhao, Linke Ouyang, Bin Wang, Siyuan Huang, Pan Zhang, Xiaoyi Dong, Jiaqi Wang, Conghui He

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Despite the great advance of Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) in both instruction dataset building and benchmarking, the independence of training and evaluation makes current MLLMs hard to further improve their capability under the guidance of evaluation results with a relatively low human cost. In this paper, we propose MLLM-DataEngine, a novel closed-loop system that bridges data generation, model training, and evaluation. Within each loop iteration, the MLLM-DataEngine first analyze the weakness of the model based on the evaluation results, then generate a proper incremental dataset for the next training iteration and enhance the model capability iteratively. Compared with previous data collection methods which are separate from the benchmarking, the data generated by MLLM-DataEngine shows better targeting, quality, and correctness. For targeting, we propose an Adaptive Bad-case Sampling module, which adjusts the ratio of different types of data within each incremental dataset based on the benchmarking results. For quality, we resort to GPT-4 to generate high-quality data with each given data type. For correctness, prompt design is critical for the data generation results. Rather than previous hand-crafted prompt, we propose an Interactive Prompt Optimization strategy, which optimizes the prompt with the multi-round interaction between human and GPT, and improve the correctness of generated data greatly. Through extensive experiments, we find our MLLM-DataEngine could boost the MLLM capability in a targeted and automatic manner, with only a few human participation. We hope it could be a general solution for the following MLLMs building. The MLLM-DataEngine has been open-sourced and is now available at

* Code and models are available at 
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SeaEval for Multilingual Foundation Models: From Cross-Lingual Alignment to Cultural Reasoning

Sep 09, 2023
Bin Wang, Zhengyuan Liu, Xin Huang, Fangkai Jiao, Yang Ding, Ai Ti Aw, Nancy F. Chen

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We present SeaEval, a benchmark for multilingual foundation models. In addition to characterizing how these models understand and reason with natural language, we also investigate how well they comprehend cultural practices, nuances, and values. Alongside standard accuracy metrics, we investigate the brittleness of foundation models in the dimensions of semantics and multilinguality. Our analyses span both open-sourced and closed models, leading to empirical results across classic NLP tasks, reasoning, and cultural comprehension. Key findings indicate (1) Most models exhibit varied behavior when given paraphrased instructions. (2) Many models still suffer from exposure bias (e.g., positional bias, majority label bias). (3) For questions rooted in factual, scientific, and commonsense knowledge, consistent responses are expected across multilingual queries that are semantically equivalent. Yet, most models surprisingly demonstrate inconsistent performance on these queries. (4) Multilingually-trained models have not attained "balanced multilingual" capabilities. Our endeavors underscore the need for more generalizable semantic representations and enhanced multilingual contextualization. SeaEval can serve as a launchpad for more thorough investigations and evaluations for multilingual and multicultural scenarios.

* 15 pages, 7 figures 
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Deep Reinforcement Learning-driven Cross-Community Energy Interaction Optimal Scheduling

Sep 02, 2023
Yang Li, Wenjie Ma, Fanjin Bu, Zhen Yang, Bin Wang, Meng Han

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In order to coordinate energy interactions among various communities and energy conversions among multi-energy subsystems within the multi-community integrated energy system under uncertain conditions, and achieve overall optimization and scheduling of the comprehensive energy system, this paper proposes a comprehensive scheduling model that utilizes a multi-agent deep reinforcement learning algorithm to learn load characteristics of different communities and make decisions based on this knowledge. In this model, the scheduling problem of the integrated energy system is transformed into a Markov decision process and solved using a data-driven deep reinforcement learning algorithm, which avoids the need for modeling complex energy coupling relationships between multi-communities and multi-energy subsystems. The simulation results show that the proposed method effectively captures the load characteristics of different communities and utilizes their complementary features to coordinate reasonable energy interactions among them. This leads to a reduction in wind curtailment rate from 16.3% to 0% and lowers the overall operating cost by 5445.6 Yuan, demonstrating significant economic and environmental benefits.

* in Chinese language, Accepted by Electric Power Construction 
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What Makes Good Open-Vocabulary Detector: A Disassembling Perspective

Sep 01, 2023
Jincheng Li, Chunyu Xie, Xiaoyu Wu, Bin Wang, Dawei Leng

Open-vocabulary detection (OVD) is a new object detection paradigm, aiming to localize and recognize unseen objects defined by an unbounded vocabulary. This is challenging since traditional detectors can only learn from pre-defined categories and thus fail to detect and localize objects out of pre-defined vocabulary. To handle the challenge, OVD leverages pre-trained cross-modal VLM, such as CLIP, ALIGN, etc. Previous works mainly focus on the open vocabulary classification part, with less attention on the localization part. We argue that for a good OVD detector, both classification and localization should be parallelly studied for the novel object categories. We show in this work that improving localization as well as cross-modal classification complement each other, and compose a good OVD detector jointly. We analyze three families of OVD methods with different design emphases. We first propose a vanilla method,i.e., cropping a bounding box obtained by a localizer and resizing it into the CLIP. We next introduce another approach, which combines a standard two-stage object detector with CLIP. A two-stage object detector includes a visual backbone, a region proposal network (RPN), and a region of interest (RoI) head. We decouple RPN and ROI head (DRR) and use RoIAlign to extract meaningful features. In this case, it avoids resizing objects. To further accelerate the training time and reduce the model parameters, we couple RPN and ROI head (CRR) as the third approach. We conduct extensive experiments on these three types of approaches in different settings. On the OVD-COCO benchmark, DRR obtains the best performance and achieves 35.8 Novel AP$_{50}$, an absolute 2.8 gain over the previous state-of-the-art (SOTA). For OVD-LVIS, DRR surpasses the previous SOTA by 1.9 AP$_{50}$ in rare categories. We also provide an object detection dataset called PID and provide a baseline on PID.

* KDD workshop 2023  
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AsyncET: Asynchronous Learning for Knowledge Graph Entity Typing with Auxiliary Relations

Aug 30, 2023
Yun-Cheng Wang, Xiou Ge, Bin Wang, C. -C. Jay Kuo

Knowledge graph entity typing (KGET) is a task to predict the missing entity types in knowledge graphs (KG). Previously, KG embedding (KGE) methods tried to solve the KGET task by introducing an auxiliary relation, 'hasType', to model the relationship between entities and their types. However, a single auxiliary relation has limited expressiveness for diverse entity-type patterns. We improve the expressiveness of KGE methods by introducing multiple auxiliary relations in this work. Similar entity types are grouped to reduce the number of auxiliary relations and improve their capability to model entity-type patterns with different granularities. With the presence of multiple auxiliary relations, we propose a method adopting an Asynchronous learning scheme for Entity Typing, named AsyncET, which updates the entity and type embeddings alternatively to keep the learned entity embedding up-to-date and informative for entity type prediction. Experiments are conducted on two commonly used KGET datasets to show that the performance of KGE methods on the KGET task can be substantially improved by the proposed multiple auxiliary relations and asynchronous embedding learning. Furthermore, our method has a significant advantage over state-of-the-art methods in model sizes and time complexity.

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