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Yonina C. Eldar

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Optimization Guarantees of Unfolded ISTA and ADMM Networks With Smooth Soft-Thresholding

Sep 12, 2023
Shaik Basheeruddin Shah, Pradyumna Pradhan, Wei Pu, Ramunaidu Randhi, Miguel R. D. Rodrigues, Yonina C. Eldar

Solving linear inverse problems plays a crucial role in numerous applications. Algorithm unfolding based, model-aware data-driven approaches have gained significant attention for effectively addressing these problems. Learned iterative soft-thresholding algorithm (LISTA) and alternating direction method of multipliers compressive sensing network (ADMM-CSNet) are two widely used such approaches, based on ISTA and ADMM algorithms, respectively. In this work, we study optimization guarantees, i.e., achieving near-zero training loss with the increase in the number of learning epochs, for finite-layer unfolded networks such as LISTA and ADMM-CSNet with smooth soft-thresholding in an over-parameterized (OP) regime. We achieve this by leveraging a modified version of the Polyak-Lojasiewicz, denoted PL$^*$, condition. Satisfying the PL$^*$ condition within a specific region of the loss landscape ensures the existence of a global minimum and exponential convergence from initialization using gradient descent based methods. Hence, we provide conditions, in terms of the network width and the number of training samples, on these unfolded networks for the PL$^*$ condition to hold. We achieve this by deriving the Hessian spectral norm of these networks. Additionally, we show that the threshold on the number of training samples increases with the increase in the network width. Furthermore, we compare the threshold on training samples of unfolded networks with that of a standard fully-connected feed-forward network (FFNN) with smooth soft-thresholding non-linearity. We prove that unfolded networks have a higher threshold value than FFNN. Consequently, one can expect a better expected error for unfolded networks than FFNN.

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Signal Processing and Learning for Next Generation Multiple Access in 6G

Sep 09, 2023
Wei Chen, Yuanwei Liu, Hamid Jafarkhani, Yonina C. Eldar, Peiying Zhu, Khaled B Letaief

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Wireless communication systems to date primarily rely on the orthogonality of resources to facilitate the design and implementation, from user access to data transmission. Emerging applications and scenarios in the sixth generation (6G) wireless systems will require massive connectivity and transmission of a deluge of data, which calls for more flexibility in the design concept that goes beyond orthogonality. Furthermore, recent advances in signal processing and learning have attracted considerable attention, as they provide promising approaches to various complex and previously intractable problems of signal processing in many fields. This article provides an overview of research efforts to date in the field of signal processing and learning for next-generation multiple access, with an emphasis on massive random access and non-orthogonal multiple access. The promising interplay with new technologies and the challenges in learning-based NGMA are discussed.

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Near-Field 3D Localization via MIMO Radar: Cramér-Rao Bound Analysis and Estimator Design

Aug 30, 2023
Haocheng Hua, Jie Xu, Yonina C. Eldar

This paper studies a near-field multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar sensing system, in which the transceivers with massive antennas aim to localize multiple near-field targets in the three-dimensional (3D) space over unknown cluttered environments. We consider a spherical wavefront propagation with both channel phase and amplitude variations over different antennas. Under this setup, the unknown parameters include the 3D coordinates and complex reflection coefficients of the targets, as well as the noise and interference covariance matrix. First, by considering general transmit signal waveforms, we derive the Fisher information matrix (FIM) corresponding to the 3D coordinates and the complex reflection coefficients of the targets and accordingly obtain the Cram\'er-Rao bound (CRB) for the 3D coordinates. This provides a performance bound for 3D near-field target localization. For the special single-target case, we obtain the CRB in an analytical form, and analyze its asymptotic scaling behaviors with respect to the target distance and antenna size of the transceiver. Next, to facilitate practical localization, we propose two estimators to localize targets based on the maximum likelihood (ML) criterion, namely the 3D approximate cyclic optimization (3D-ACO) and the 3D cyclic optimization with white Gaussian noise (3D-CO-WGN), respectively. Numerical results validate the asymptotic CRB analysis and show that the consideration of varying channel amplitudes is vital to achieve accurate CRB and localization when the targets are close to the transceivers. It is also shown that the proposed estimators achieve localization performance close to the derived CRB under various cluttered environments, thus validating their effectiveness in practical implementation. Furthermore, it is shown that transmit waveforms have a significant impact on CRB and the localization performance.

* 13 pages (14 pages in Arxiv version..), 16 figures, submitted for journal publication. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2305.10986 
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Robust Transceiver Design for Covert Integrated Sensing and Communications With Imperfect CSI

Aug 29, 2023
Yuchen Zhang, Wanli Ni, Jianquan Wang, Wanbin Tang, Min Jia, Yonina C. Eldar, Dusit Niyato

We propose a robust transceiver design for a covert integrated sensing and communications (ISAC) system with imperfect channel state information (CSI). Considering both bounded and probabilistic CSI error models, we formulate worst-case and outage-constrained robust optimization problems of joint trasceiver beamforming and radar waveform design to balance the radar performance of multiple targets while ensuring communications performance and covertness of the system. The optimization problems are challenging due to the non-convexity arising from the semi-infinite constraints (SICs) and the coupled transceiver variables. In an effort to tackle the former difficulty, S-procedure and Bernstein-type inequality are introduced for converting the SICs into finite convex linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and second-order cone constraints. A robust alternating optimization framework referred to alternating double-checking is developed for decoupling the transceiver design problem into feasibility-checking transmitter- and receiver-side subproblems, transforming the rank-one constraints into a set of LMIs, and verifying the feasibility of beamforming by invoking the matrix-lifting scheme. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm in improving the performance of covert ISAC systems.

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Unfolding for Joint Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection in MIMO Communication Systems

Aug 21, 2023
Swati Bhattacharya, K. V. S. Hari, Yonina C. Eldar

This paper proposes a Joint Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection (JED) scheme for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. Our proposed method for JED using Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (JED-ADMM) and its model-based neural network version JED using Unfolded ADMM (JED-U-ADMM) markedly improve the symbol detection performance over JED using Alternating Minimization (JED-AM) for a range of MIMO antenna configurations. Both proposed algorithms exploit the non-smooth constraint, that occurs as a result of the Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) data symbols, to effectively improve the performance using the ADMM iterations. The proposed unfolded network JED-U-ADMM consists of a few trainable parameters and requires a small training set. We show the efficacy of the proposed methods for both uncorrelated and correlated MIMO channels. For certain configurations, the gain in SNR for a desired BER of $10^{-2}$ for the proposed JED-ADMM and JED-U-ADMM is upto $4$ dB and is also accompanied by a significant reduction in computational complexity of upto $75\%$, depending on the MIMO configuration, as compared to the complexity of JED-AM.

* 14 pages, 19 figures, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 
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Kernel Based Reconstruction for Generalized Graph Signal Processing

Aug 14, 2023
Xingchao Jian, Wee Peng Tay, Yonina C. Eldar

In generalized graph signal processing (GGSP), the signal associated with each vertex in a graph is an element from a Hilbert space. In this paper, we study GGSP signal reconstruction as a kernel ridge regression (KRR) problem. By devising an appropriate kernel, we show that this problem has a solution that can be evaluated in a distributed way. We interpret the problem and solution using both deterministic and Bayesian perspectives and link them to existing graph signal processing and GGSP frameworks. We then provide an online implementation via random Fourier features. Under the Bayesian framework, we investigate the statistical performance under the asymptotic sampling scheme. Finally, we validate our theory and methods on real-world datasets.

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On the Learning of Digital Self-Interference Cancellation in Full-Duplex Radios

Aug 11, 2023
Jungyeon Kim, Hyowon Lee, Heedong Do, Jinseok Choi, Jeonghun Park, Wonjae Shin, Yonina C. Eldar, Namyoon Lee

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Full-duplex communication systems have the potential to achieve significantly higher data rates and lower latency compared to their half-duplex counterparts. This advantage stems from their ability to transmit and receive data simultaneously. However, to enable successful full-duplex operation, the primary challenge lies in accurately eliminating strong self-interference (SI). Overcoming this challenge involves addressing various issues, including the nonlinearity of power amplifiers, the time-varying nature of the SI channel, and the non-stationary transmit data distribution. In this article, we present a review of recent advancements in digital self-interference cancellation (SIC) algorithms. Our focus is on comparing the effectiveness of adaptable model-based SIC methods with their model-free counterparts that leverage data-driven machine learning techniques. Through our comparison study under practical scenarios, we demonstrate that the model-based SIC approach offers a more robust solution to the time-varying SI channel and the non-stationary transmission, achieving optimal SIC performance in terms of the convergence rate while maintaining low computational complexity. To validate our findings, we conduct experiments using a software-defined radio testbed that conforms to the IEEE 802.11a standards. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the model-based SIC methods, providing practical evidence of their effectiveness.

* 8 pages, 5 figures and 1 table 
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RIS-Aided Index Modulation with Greedy Detection over Rician Fading Channels

Jul 18, 2023
Aritra Basu, Soumya P. Dash, Aryan Kaushik, Debasish Ghose, Marco Di Renzo, Yonina C. Eldar

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Index modulation schemes for reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS)-assisted systems are envisioned as promising technologies for fifth-generation-advanced and sixth-generation (6G) wireless communication systems to enhance various system capabilities such as coverage area and network capacity. In this paper, we consider a receive diversity RIS-assisted wireless communication system employing IM schemes, namely, space-shift keying (SSK) for binary modulation and spatial modulation (SM) for M-ary modulation for data transmission. The RIS lies in close proximity to the transmitter, and the transmitted data is subjected to a fading environment with a prominent line-of-sight component modeled by a Rician distribution. A receiver structure based on a greedy detection rule is employed to select the receive diversity branch with the highest received signal energy for demodulation. The performance of the considered system is evaluated by obtaining a series-form expression for the probability of erroneous index detection (PED) of the considered target antenna using a characteristic function approach. In addition, closed-form and asymptotic expressions at high and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for the bit error rate (BER) for the SSK-based system, and the SM-based system employing M-ary phase-shift keying and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation schemes, are derived. The dependencies of the system performance on the various parameters are corroborated via numerical results. The asymptotic expressions and results of PED and BER at high and low SNR values lead to the observation of a performance saturation and the presence of an SNR value as a point of inflection, which is attributed to the greedy detector's structure.

* 30 pages, 7 figures 
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