Large language model (LLM) applications in cloud root cause analysis (RCA) have been actively explored recently. However, current methods are still reliant on manual workflow settings and do not unleash LLMs' decision-making and environment interaction capabilities. We present RCAgent, a tool-augmented LLM autonomous agent framework for practical and privacy-aware industrial RCA usage. Running on an internally deployed model rather than GPT families, RCAgent is capable of free-form data collection and comprehensive analysis with tools. Our framework combines a variety of enhancements, including a unique Self-Consistency for action trajectories, and a suite of methods for context management, stabilization, and importing domain knowledge. Our experiments show RCAgent's evident and consistent superiority over ReAct across all aspects of RCA -- predicting root causes, solutions, evidence, and responsibilities -- and tasks covered or uncovered by current rules, as validated by both automated metrics and human evaluations. Furthermore, RCAgent has already been integrated into the diagnosis and issue discovery workflow of the Real-time Compute Platform for Apache Flink of Alibaba Cloud.
In recent years, the Segmentation Anything Model (SAM) has attracted considerable attention as a foundational model well-known for its robust generalization capabilities across various downstream tasks. However, SAM does not exhibit satisfactory performance in the realm of medical image analysis. In this study, we introduce the first study on adapting SAM on video segmentation, called MediViSTA-SAM, a novel approach designed for medical video segmentation. Given video data, MediViSTA, spatio-temporal adapter captures long and short range temporal attention with cross-frame attention mechanism effectively constraining it to consider the immediately preceding video frame as a reference, while also considering spatial information effectively. Additionally, it incorporates multi-scale fusion by employing a U-shaped encoder and a modified mask decoder to handle objects of varying sizes. To evaluate our approach, extensive experiments were conducted using state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods, assessing its generalization abilities on multi-vendor in-house echocardiography datasets. The results highlight the accuracy and effectiveness of our network in medical video segmentation.
The Segment Anything Model (SAM), a foundation model for general image segmentation, has demonstrated impressive zero-shot performance across numerous natural image segmentation tasks. However, SAM's performance significantly declines when applied to medical images, primarily due to the substantial disparity between natural and medical image domains. To effectively adapt SAM to medical images, it is important to incorporate critical third-dimensional information, i.e., volumetric or temporal knowledge, during fine-tuning. Simultaneously, we aim to harness SAM's pre-trained weights within its original 2D backbone to the fullest extent. In this paper, we introduce a modality-agnostic SAM adaptation framework, named as MA-SAM, that is applicable to various volumetric and video medical data. Our method roots in the parameter-efficient fine-tuning strategy to update only a small portion of weight increments while preserving the majority of SAM's pre-trained weights. By injecting a series of 3D adapters into the transformer blocks of the image encoder, our method enables the pre-trained 2D backbone to extract third-dimensional information from input data. The effectiveness of our method has been comprehensively evaluated on four medical image segmentation tasks, by using 10 public datasets across CT, MRI, and surgical video data. Remarkably, without using any prompt, our method consistently outperforms various state-of-the-art 3D approaches, surpassing nnU-Net by 0.9%, 2.6%, and 9.9% in Dice for CT multi-organ segmentation, MRI prostate segmentation, and surgical scene segmentation respectively. Our model also demonstrates strong generalization, and excels in challenging tumor segmentation when prompts are used. Our code is available at: https://github.com/cchen-cc/MA-SAM.
This paper introduces Radiology-Llama2, a large language model specialized for radiology through a process known as instruction tuning. Radiology-Llama2 is based on the Llama2 architecture and further trained on a large dataset of radiology reports to generate coherent and clinically useful impressions from radiological findings. Quantitative evaluations using ROUGE metrics on the MIMIC-CXR and OpenI datasets demonstrate that Radiology-Llama2 achieves state-of-the-art performance compared to other generative language models, with a Rouge-1 score of 0.4834 on MIMIC-CXR and 0.4185 on OpenI. Additional assessments by radiology experts highlight the model's strengths in understandability, coherence, relevance, conciseness, and clinical utility. The work illustrates the potential of localized language models designed and tuned for specialized domains like radiology. When properly evaluated and deployed, such models can transform fields like radiology by automating rote tasks and enhancing human expertise.
We introduce Radiology-GPT, a large language model for radiology. Using an instruction tuning approach on an extensive dataset of radiology domain knowledge, Radiology-GPT demonstrates superior performance compared to general language models such as StableLM, Dolly and LLaMA. It exhibits significant versatility in radiological diagnosis, research, and communication. This work serves as a catalyst for future developments in clinical NLP. The successful implementation of Radiology-GPT is indicative of the potential of localizing generative large language models, specifically tailored for distinctive medical specialties, while ensuring adherence to privacy standards such as HIPAA. The prospect of developing individualized, large-scale language models that cater to specific needs of various hospitals presents a promising direction. The fusion of conversational competence and domain-specific knowledge in these models is set to foster future development in healthcare AI. A demo of Radiology-GPT is available at https://huggingface.co/spaces/allen-eric/radiology-gpt.
Cross-silo Federated learning (FL) has become a promising tool in machine learning applications for healthcare. It allows hospitals/institutions to train models with sufficient data while the data is kept private. To make sure the FL model is robust when facing heterogeneous data among FL clients, most efforts focus on personalizing models for clients. However, the latent relationships between clients' data are ignored. In this work, we focus on a special non-iid FL problem, called Domain-mixed FL, where each client's data distribution is assumed to be a mixture of several predefined domains. Recognizing the diversity of domains and the similarity within domains, we propose a novel method, FedDAR, which learns a domain shared representation and domain-wise personalized prediction heads in a decoupled manner. For simplified linear regression settings, we have theoretically proved that FedDAR enjoys a linear convergence rate. For general settings, we have performed intensive empirical studies on both synthetic and real-world medical datasets which demonstrate its superiority over prior FL methods.
COVID-19 patient triaging with predictive outcome of the patients upon first present to emergency department (ED) is crucial for improving patient prognosis, as well as better hospital resources management and cross-infection control. We trained a deep feature fusion model to predict patient outcomes, where the model inputs were EHR data including demographic information, co-morbidities, vital signs and laboratory measurements, plus patient's CXR images. The model output was patient outcomes defined as the most insensitive oxygen therapy required. For patients without CXR images, we employed Random Forest method for the prediction. Predictive risk scores for COVID-19 severe outcomes ("CO-RISK" score) were derived from model output and evaluated on the testing dataset, as well as compared to human performance. The study's dataset (the "MGB COVID Cohort") was constructed from all patients presenting to the Mass General Brigham (MGB) healthcare system from March 1st to June 1st, 2020. ED visits with incomplete or erroneous data were excluded. Patients with no test order for COVID or confirmed negative test results were excluded. Patients under the age of 15 were also excluded. Finally, electronic health record (EHR) data from a total of 11060 COVID-19 confirmed or suspected patients were used in this study. Chest X-ray (CXR) images were also collected from each patient if available. Results show that CO-RISK score achieved area under the Curve (AUC) of predicting MV/death (i.e. severe outcomes) in 24 hours of 0.95, and 0.92 in 72 hours on the testing dataset. The model shows superior performance to the commonly used risk scores in ED (CURB-65 and MEWS). Comparing with physician's decisions, CO-RISK score has demonstrated superior performance to human in making ICU/floor decisions.
In recent years, deep learning-based image analysis methods have been widely applied in computer-aided detection, diagnosis and prognosis, and has shown its value during the public health crisis of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Chest radiograph (CXR) has been playing a crucial role in COVID-19 patient triaging, diagnosing and monitoring, particularly in the United States. Considering the mixed and unspecific signals in CXR, an image retrieval model of CXR that provides both similar images and associated clinical information can be more clinically meaningful than a direct image diagnostic model. In this work we develop a novel CXR image retrieval model based on deep metric learning. Unlike traditional diagnostic models which aims at learning the direct mapping from images to labels, the proposed model aims at learning the optimized embedding space of images, where images with the same labels and similar contents are pulled together. It utilizes multi-similarity loss with hard-mining sampling strategy and attention mechanism to learn the optimized embedding space, and provides similar images to the query image. The model is trained and validated on an international multi-site COVID-19 dataset collected from 3 different sources. Experimental results of COVID-19 image retrieval and diagnosis tasks show that the proposed model can serve as a robust solution for CXR analysis and patient management for COVID-19. The model is also tested on its transferability on a different clinical decision support task, where the pre-trained model is applied to extract image features from a new dataset without any further training. These results demonstrate our deep metric learning based image retrieval model is highly efficient in the CXR retrieval, diagnosis and prognosis, and thus has great clinical value for the treatment and management of COVID-19 patients.
In many multi-agent reinforcement learning applications such as flocking, multi-robot applications and smart manufacturing, distinct agents share similar dynamics but face different objectives. In these applications, an important question is how the similarities amongst the agents can accelerate learning in spite of the agents' differing goals. We study a distributed LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) tracking problem which models this setting, where the agents, acting independently, share identical (unknown) dynamics and cost structure but need to track different targets. In this paper, we propose a communication-efficient, federated model-free zeroth-order algorithm that provably achieves a convergence speedup linear in the number of agents compared with the communication-free setup where each agent's problem is treated independently. We support our arguments with numerical simulations of both linear and nonlinear systems.
In our work, we bridge deep neural network design with numerical differential equations. We show that many effective networks, such as ResNet, PolyNet, FractalNet and RevNet, can be interpreted as different numerical discretizations of differential equations. This finding brings us a brand new perspective on the design of effective deep architectures. We can take advantage of the rich knowledge in numerical analysis to guide us in designing new and potentially more effective deep networks. As an example, we propose a linear multi-step architecture (LM-architecture) which is inspired by the linear multi-step method solving ordinary differential equations. The LM-architecture is an effective structure that can be used on any ResNet-like networks. In particular, we demonstrate that LM-ResNet and LM-ResNeXt (i.e. the networks obtained by applying the LM-architecture on ResNet and ResNeXt respectively) can achieve noticeably higher accuracy than ResNet and ResNeXt on both CIFAR and ImageNet with comparable numbers of trainable parameters. In particular, on both CIFAR and ImageNet, LM-ResNet/LM-ResNeXt can significantly compress ($>50$\%) the original networks while maintaining a similar performance. This can be explained mathematically using the concept of modified equation from numerical analysis. Last but not least, we also establish a connection between stochastic control and noise injection in the training process which helps to improve generalization of the networks. Furthermore, by relating stochastic training strategy with stochastic dynamic system, we can easily apply stochastic training to the networks with the LM-architecture. As an example, we introduced stochastic depth to LM-ResNet and achieve significant improvement over the original LM-ResNet on CIFAR10.