Diffusion-based models have gained significant popularity for text-to-image generation due to their exceptional image-generation capabilities. A risk with these models is the potential generation of inappropriate content, such as biased or harmful images. However, the underlying reasons for generating such undesired content from the perspective of the diffusion model's internal representation remain unclear. Previous work interprets vectors in an interpretable latent space of diffusion models as semantic concepts. However, existing approaches cannot discover directions for arbitrary concepts, such as those related to inappropriate concepts. In this work, we propose a novel self-supervised approach to find interpretable latent directions for a given concept. With the discovered vectors, we further propose a simple approach to mitigate inappropriate generation. Extensive experiments have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of our mitigation approach, namely, for fair generation, safe generation, and responsible text-enhancing generation.
Creating high-dynamic videos such as motion-rich actions and sophisticated visual effects poses a significant challenge in the field of artificial intelligence. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art video generation methods, primarily focusing on text-to-video generation, tend to produce video clips with minimal motions despite maintaining high fidelity. We argue that relying solely on text instructions is insufficient and suboptimal for video generation. In this paper, we introduce PixelDance, a novel approach based on diffusion models that incorporates image instructions for both the first and last frames in conjunction with text instructions for video generation. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate that PixelDance trained with public data exhibits significantly better proficiency in synthesizing videos with complex scenes and intricate motions, setting a new standard for video generation.
Contemporary large-scale visual language models (VLMs) exhibit strong representation capacities, making them ubiquitous for enhancing image and text understanding tasks. They are often trained in a contrastive manner on a large and diverse corpus of images and corresponding text captions scraped from the internet. Despite this, VLMs often struggle with compositional reasoning tasks which require a fine-grained understanding of the complex interactions of objects and their attributes. This failure can be attributed to two main factors: 1) Contrastive approaches have traditionally focused on mining negative examples from existing datasets. However, the mined negative examples might not be difficult for the model to discriminate from the positive. An alternative to mining would be negative sample generation 2) But existing generative approaches primarily focus on generating hard negative texts associated with a given image. Mining in the other direction, i.e., generating negative image samples associated with a given text has been ignored. To overcome both these limitations, we propose a framework that not only mines in both directions but also generates challenging negative samples in both modalities, i.e., images and texts. Leveraging these generative hard negative samples, we significantly enhance VLMs' performance in tasks involving multimodal compositional reasoning. Our code and dataset are released at https://ugorsahin.github.io/enhancing-multimodal-compositional-reasoning-of-vlm.html.
Recent progress in vision language foundation models has shown their ability to understand multimodal data and resolve complicated vision language tasks, including robotics manipulation. We seek a straightforward way of making use of existing vision-language models (VLMs) with simple fine-tuning on robotics data. To this end, we derive a simple and novel vision-language manipulation framework, dubbed RoboFlamingo, built upon the open-source VLMs, OpenFlamingo. Unlike prior works, RoboFlamingo utilizes pre-trained VLMs for single-step vision-language comprehension, models sequential history information with an explicit policy head, and is slightly fine-tuned by imitation learning only on language-conditioned manipulation datasets. Such a decomposition provides RoboFlamingo the flexibility for open-loop control and deployment on low-performance platforms. By exceeding the state-of-the-art performance with a large margin on the tested benchmark, we show RoboFlamingo can be an effective and competitive alternative to adapt VLMs to robot control. Our extensive experimental results also reveal several interesting conclusions regarding the behavior of different pre-trained VLMs on manipulation tasks. We believe RoboFlamingo has the potential to be a cost-effective and easy-to-use solution for robotics manipulation, empowering everyone with the ability to fine-tune their own robotics policy.
We address the problem of concept removal in deep neural networks, aiming to learn representations that do not encode certain specified concepts (e.g., gender etc.) We propose a novel method based on adversarial linear classifiers trained on a concept dataset, which helps to remove the targeted attribute while maintaining model performance. Our approach Deep Concept Removal incorporates adversarial probing classifiers at various layers of the network, effectively addressing concept entanglement and improving out-of-distribution generalization. We also introduce an implicit gradient-based technique to tackle the challenges associated with adversarial training using linear classifiers. We evaluate the ability to remove a concept on a set of popular distributionally robust optimization (DRO) benchmarks with spurious correlations, as well as out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization tasks.
Chain-of-Thought (CoT) plays a crucial role in reasoning for math problem solving. We conduct a comprehensive examination of methods for designing CoT, comparing conventional natural language CoT with various program CoTs, including the self-describing program, the comment-describing program, and the non-describing program. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of programming language on program CoTs, comparing Python and Wolfram Language. Through extensive experiments on GSM8K, MATHQA, and SVAMP, we find that program CoTs often have superior effectiveness in math problem solving. Notably, the best performing combination with 30B parameters beats GPT-3.5-turbo by a significant margin. The results show that self-describing program offers greater diversity and thus can generally achieve higher performance. We also find that Python is a better choice of language than Wolfram for program CoTs. The experimental results provide a valuable guideline for future CoT designs that take into account both programming language and coding style for further advancements. Our datasets and code are publicly available.
Joint-Embedding Predictive Architectures (JEPAs) have recently emerged as a novel and powerful technique for self-supervised representation learning. They aim to learn an energy-based model by predicting the latent representation of a target signal $y$ from a context signal $x$. JEPAs bypass the need for data augmentation and negative samples, which are typically required by contrastive learning, while avoiding the overfitting issues associated with generative-based pretraining. In this paper, we show that graph-level representations can be effectively modeled using this paradigm and propose Graph-JEPA, the first JEPA for the graph domain. In particular, we employ masked modeling to learn embeddings for different subgraphs of the input graph. To endow the representations with the implicit hierarchy that is often present in graph-level concepts, we devise an alternative training objective that consists of predicting the coordinates of the encoded subgraphs on the unit hyperbola in the 2D plane. Extensive validation shows that Graph-JEPA can learn representations that are expressive and competitive in both graph classification and regression problems.
Ensuring alignment, which refers to making models behave in accordance with human intentions [1,2], has become a critical task before deploying large language models (LLMs) in real-world applications. For instance, OpenAI devoted six months to iteratively aligning GPT-4 before its release . However, a major challenge faced by practitioners is the lack of clear guidance on evaluating whether LLM outputs align with social norms, values, and regulations. This obstacle hinders systematic iteration and deployment of LLMs. To address this issue, this paper presents a comprehensive survey of key dimensions that are crucial to consider when assessing LLM trustworthiness. The survey covers seven major categories of LLM trustworthiness: reliability, safety, fairness, resistance to misuse, explainability and reasoning, adherence to social norms, and robustness. Each major category is further divided into several sub-categories, resulting in a total of 29 sub-categories. Additionally, a subset of 8 sub-categories is selected for further investigation, where corresponding measurement studies are designed and conducted on several widely-used LLMs. The measurement results indicate that, in general, more aligned models tend to perform better in terms of overall trustworthiness. However, the effectiveness of alignment varies across the different trustworthiness categories considered. This highlights the importance of conducting more fine-grained analyses, testing, and making continuous improvements on LLM alignment. By shedding light on these key dimensions of LLM trustworthiness, this paper aims to provide valuable insights and guidance to practitioners in the field. Understanding and addressing these concerns will be crucial in achieving reliable and ethically sound deployment of LLMs in various applications.