This paper presents RadOnc-GPT, a large language model specialized for radiation oncology through advanced tuning methods. RadOnc-GPT was finetuned on a large dataset of radiation oncology patient records and clinical notes from the Mayo Clinic in Arizona. The model employs instruction tuning on three key tasks - generating radiotherapy treatment regimens, determining optimal radiation modalities, and providing diagnostic descriptions/ICD codes based on patient diagnostic details. Evaluations conducted by comparing RadOnc-GPT outputs to general large language model outputs showed that RadOnc-GPT generated outputs with significantly improved clarity, specificity, and clinical relevance. The study demonstrated the potential of using large language models fine-tuned using domain-specific knowledge like RadOnc-GPT to achieve transformational capabilities in highly specialized healthcare fields such as radiation oncology.
This paper introduces Radiology-Llama2, a large language model specialized for radiology through a process known as instruction tuning. Radiology-Llama2 is based on the Llama2 architecture and further trained on a large dataset of radiology reports to generate coherent and clinically useful impressions from radiological findings. Quantitative evaluations using ROUGE metrics on the MIMIC-CXR and OpenI datasets demonstrate that Radiology-Llama2 achieves state-of-the-art performance compared to other generative language models, with a Rouge-1 score of 0.4834 on MIMIC-CXR and 0.4185 on OpenI. Additional assessments by radiology experts highlight the model's strengths in understandability, coherence, relevance, conciseness, and clinical utility. The work illustrates the potential of localized language models designed and tuned for specialized domains like radiology. When properly evaluated and deployed, such models can transform fields like radiology by automating rote tasks and enhancing human expertise.
The rise of large language models (LLMs) has marked a pivotal shift in the field of natural language processing (NLP). LLMs have revolutionized a multitude of domains, and they have made a significant impact in the medical field. Large language models are now more abundant than ever, and many of these models exhibit bilingual capabilities, proficient in both English and Chinese. However, a comprehensive evaluation of these models remains to be conducted. This lack of assessment is especially apparent within the context of radiology NLP. This study seeks to bridge this gap by critically evaluating thirty two LLMs in interpreting radiology reports, a crucial component of radiology NLP. Specifically, the ability to derive impressions from radiologic findings is assessed. The outcomes of this evaluation provide key insights into the performance, strengths, and weaknesses of these LLMs, informing their practical applications within the medical domain.
This paper introduces SAMAug, a novel visual point augmentation method for the Segment Anything Model (SAM) that enhances interactive image segmentation performance. SAMAug generates augmented point prompts to provide more information to SAM. From the initial point prompt, SAM produces the initial mask, which is then fed into our proposed SAMAug to generate augmented point prompts. By incorporating these extra points, SAM can generate augmented segmentation masks based on the augmented point prompts and the initial prompt, resulting in improved segmentation performance. We evaluate four point augmentation techniques: random selection, maximum difference entropy, maximum distance, and a saliency model. Experiments on the COCO, Fundus, and Chest X-ray datasets demonstrate that SAMAug can boost SAM's segmentation results, especially using the maximum distance and saliency model methods. SAMAug underscores the potential of visual prompt engineering to advance interactive computer vision models.
We introduce Radiology-GPT, a large language model for radiology. Using an instruction tuning approach on an extensive dataset of radiology domain knowledge, Radiology-GPT demonstrates superior performance compared to general language models such as StableLM, Dolly and LLaMA. It exhibits significant versatility in radiological diagnosis, research, and communication. This work serves as a catalyst for future developments in clinical NLP. The successful implementation of Radiology-GPT is indicative of the potential of localizing generative large language models, specifically tailored for distinctive medical specialties, while ensuring adherence to privacy standards such as HIPAA. The prospect of developing individualized, large-scale language models that cater to specific needs of various hospitals presents a promising direction. The fusion of conversational competence and domain-specific knowledge in these models is set to foster future development in healthcare AI. A demo of Radiology-GPT is available at https://huggingface.co/spaces/allen-eric/radiology-gpt.
Advertising (ad for short) keyword suggestion is important for sponsored search to improve online advertising and increase search revenue. There are two common challenges in this task. First, the keyword bidding problem: hot ad keywords are very expensive for most of the advertisers because more advertisers are bidding on more popular keywords, while unpopular keywords are difficult to discover. As a result, most ads have few chances to be presented to the users. Second, the inefficient ad impression issue: a large proportion of search queries, which are unpopular yet relevant to many ad keywords, have no ads presented on their search result pages. Existing retrieval-based or matching-based methods either deteriorate the bidding competition or are unable to suggest novel keywords to cover more queries, which leads to inefficient ad impressions. To address the above issues, this work investigates to use generative neural networks for keyword generation in sponsored search. Given a purchased keyword (a word sequence) as input, our model can generate a set of keywords that are not only relevant to the input but also satisfy the domain constraint which enforces that the domain category of a generated keyword is as expected. Furthermore, a reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed to adaptively utilize domain-specific information in keyword generation. Offline evaluation shows that the proposed model can generate keywords that are diverse, novel, relevant to the source keyword, and accordant with the domain constraint. Online evaluation shows that generative models can improve coverage (COV), click-through rate (CTR), and revenue per mille (RPM) substantially in sponsored search.
Recent works using artificial neural networks based on word distributed representation greatly boost the performance of various natural language learning tasks, especially question answering. Though, they also carry along with some attendant problems, such as corpus selection for embedding learning, dictionary transformation for different learning tasks, etc. In this paper, we propose to straightforwardly model sentences by means of character sequences, and then utilize convolutional neural networks to integrate character embedding learning together with point-wise answer selection training. Compared with deep models pre-trained on word embedding (WE) strategy, our character-sequential representation (CSR) based method shows a much simpler procedure and more stable performance across different benchmarks. Extensive experiments on two benchmark answer selection datasets exhibit the competitive performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.