Recent advances in text-to-video generation have harnessed the power of diffusion models to create visually compelling content conditioned on text prompts. However, they usually encounter high computational costs and often struggle to produce videos with coherent physical motions. To tackle these issues, we propose GPT4Motion, a training-free framework that leverages the planning capability of large language models such as GPT, the physical simulation strength of Blender, and the excellent image generation ability of text-to-image diffusion models to enhance the quality of video synthesis. Specifically, GPT4Motion employs GPT-4 to generate a Blender script based on a user textual prompt, which commands Blender's built-in physics engine to craft fundamental scene components that encapsulate coherent physical motions across frames. Then these components are inputted into Stable Diffusion to generate a video aligned with the textual prompt. Experimental results on three basic physical motion scenarios, including rigid object drop and collision, cloth draping and swinging, and liquid flow, demonstrate that GPT4Motion can generate high-quality videos efficiently in maintaining motion coherency and entity consistency. GPT4Motion offers new insights in text-to-video research, enhancing its quality and broadening its horizon for future explorations.
Continual learning is crucial for dialog state tracking (DST) in dialog systems, since requirements from users for new functionalities are often encountered. However, most of existing continual learning methods for DST require task identities during testing, which is a severe limit in real-world applications. In this paper, we aim to address continual learning of DST in the class-incremental scenario (namely the task identity is unknown in testing). Inspired by the recently emerging prompt tuning method that performs well on dialog systems, we propose to use the prompt pool method, where we maintain a pool of key-value paired prompts and select prompts from the pool according to the distance between the dialog history and the prompt keys. The proposed method can automatically identify tasks and select appropriate prompts during testing. We conduct experiments on Schema-Guided Dialog dataset (SGD) and another dataset collected from a real-world dialog application. Experiment results show that the prompt pool method achieves much higher joint goal accuracy than the baseline. After combining with a rehearsal buffer, the model performance can be further improved.
High-energy large-scale particle colliders produce data at high speed in the order of 1 terabytes per second in nuclear physics and petabytes per second in high-energy physics. Developing real-time data compression algorithms to reduce such data at high throughput to fit permanent storage has drawn increasing attention. Specifically, at the newly constructed sPHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a time projection chamber is used as the main tracking detector, which records particle trajectories in a volume of a three-dimensional (3D) cylinder. The resulting data are usually very sparse with occupancy around 10.8%. Such sparsity presents a challenge to conventional learning-free lossy compression algorithms, such as SZ, ZFP, and MGARD. The 3D convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approach, Bicephalous Convolutional Autoencoder (BCAE), outperforms traditional methods both in compression rate and reconstruction accuracy. BCAE can also utilize the computation power of graphical processing units suitable for deployment in a modern heterogeneous high-performance computing environment. This work introduces two BCAE variants: BCAE++ and BCAE-2D. BCAE++ achieves a 15% better compression ratio and a 77% better reconstruction accuracy measured in mean absolute error compared with BCAE. BCAE-2D treats the radial direction as the channel dimension of an image, resulting in a 3x speedup in compression throughput. In addition, we demonstrate an unbalanced autoencoder with a larger decoder can improve reconstruction accuracy without significantly sacrificing throughput. Lastly, we observe both the BCAE++ and BCAE-2D can benefit more from using half-precision mode in throughput (76-79% increase) without loss in reconstruction accuracy. The source code and links to data and pretrained models can be found at https://github.com/BNL-DAQ-LDRD/NeuralCompression_v2.
In document processing, seal-related tasks have very large commercial applications, such as seal segmentation, seal authenticity discrimination, seal removal, and text recognition under seals. However, these seal-related tasks are highly dependent on labelled document seal datasets, resulting in very little work on these tasks. To address the lack of labelled datasets for these seal-related tasks, we propose Seal2Real, a generative method that generates a large amount of labelled document seal data, and construct a Seal-DB dataset containing 20K images with labels. In Seal2Real, we propose a prompt prior learning architecture based on a pre-trained Stable Diffusion Model that migrates the prior generative power of to our seal generation task with unsupervised training. The realistic seal generation capability greatly facilitates the performance of downstream seal-related tasks on real data. Experimental results on the Seal-DB dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of Seal2Real.
Although the majority of recent autonomous driving systems concentrate on developing perception methods based on ego-vehicle sensors, there is an overlooked alternative approach that involves leveraging intelligent roadside cameras to help extend the ego-vehicle perception ability beyond the visual range. We discover that most existing monocular 3D object detectors rely on the ego-vehicle prior assumption that the optical axis of the camera is parallel to the ground. However, the roadside camera is installed on a pole with a pitched angle, which makes the existing methods not optimal for roadside scenes. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for Roadside Monocular 3D object detection with ground-aware embeddings, named MonoGAE. Specifically, the ground plane is a stable and strong prior knowledge due to the fixed installation of cameras in roadside scenarios. In order to reduce the domain gap between the ground geometry information and high-dimensional image features, we employ a supervised training paradigm with a ground plane to predict high-dimensional ground-aware embeddings. These embeddings are subsequently integrated with image features through cross-attention mechanisms. Furthermore, to improve the detector's robustness to the divergences in cameras' installation poses, we replace the ground plane depth map with a novel pixel-level refined ground plane equation map. Our approach demonstrates a substantial performance advantage over all previous monocular 3D object detectors on widely recognized 3D detection benchmarks for roadside cameras. The code and pre-trained models will be released soon.
While most recent autonomous driving system focuses on developing perception methods on ego-vehicle sensors, people tend to overlook an alternative approach to leverage intelligent roadside cameras to extend the perception ability beyond the visual range. We discover that the state-of-the-art vision-centric bird's eye view detection methods have inferior performances on roadside cameras. This is because these methods mainly focus on recovering the depth regarding the camera center, where the depth difference between the car and the ground quickly shrinks while the distance increases. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective approach, dubbed BEVHeight++, to address this issue. In essence, we regress the height to the ground to achieve a distance-agnostic formulation to ease the optimization process of camera-only perception methods. By incorporating both height and depth encoding techniques, we achieve a more accurate and robust projection from 2D to BEV spaces. On popular 3D detection benchmarks of roadside cameras, our method surpasses all previous vision-centric methods by a significant margin. In terms of the ego-vehicle scenario, our BEVHeight++ possesses superior over depth-only methods. Specifically, it yields a notable improvement of +1.9% NDS and +1.1% mAP over BEVDepth when evaluated on the nuScenes validation set. Moreover, on the nuScenes test set, our method achieves substantial advancements, with an increase of +2.8% NDS and +1.7% mAP, respectively.
Recently, more and more research has focused on using Graph Neural Networks (GNN) to solve the Graph Similarity Computation problem (GSC), i.e., computing the Graph Edit Distance (GED) between two graphs. These methods treat GSC as an end-to-end learnable task, and the core of their architecture is the feature fusion modules to interact with the features of two graphs. Existing methods consider that graph-level embedding is difficult to capture the differences in local small structures between two graphs, and thus perform fine-grained feature fusion on node-level embedding can improve the accuracy, but leads to greater time and memory consumption in the training and inference phases. However, this paper proposes a novel graph-level fusion module Different Attention (DiffAtt), and demonstrates that graph-level fusion embeddings can substantially outperform these complex node-level fusion embeddings. We posit that the relative difference structure of the two graphs plays an important role in calculating their GED values. To this end, DiffAtt uses the difference between two graph-level embeddings as an attentional mechanism to capture the graph structural difference of the two graphs. Based on DiffAtt, a new GSC method, named Graph Edit Distance Learning via Different Attention (REDRAFT), is proposed, and experimental results demonstrate that REDRAFT achieves state-of-the-art performance in 23 out of 25 metrics in five benchmark datasets. Especially on MSE, it respectively outperforms the second best by 19.9%, 48.8%, 29.1%, 31.6%, and 2.2%. Moreover, we propose a quantitative test Remaining Subgraph Alignment Test (RESAT) to verify that among all graph-level fusion modules, the fusion embedding generated by DiffAtt can best capture the structural differences between two graphs.
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality. Breast cancer patients in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and South America, suffer from the highest mortality rate in the world. One crucial factor contributing to the global disparity in mortality rate is long delay of diagnosis due to a severe shortage of trained pathologists, which consequently has led to a large proportion of late-stage presentation at diagnosis. The delay between the initial development of symptoms and the receipt of a diagnosis could stretch upwards 15 months. To tackle this critical healthcare disparity, this research has developed a deep learning-based diagnosis system for metastatic breast cancer that can achieve high diagnostic accuracy as well as computational efficiency. Based on our evaluation, the MobileNetV2-based diagnostic model outperformed the more complex VGG16, ResNet50 and ResNet101 models in diagnostic accuracy, model generalization, and model training efficiency. The visual comparisons between the model prediction and ground truth have demonstrated that the MobileNetV2 diagnostic models can identify very small cancerous nodes embedded in a large area of normal cells which is challenging for manual image analysis. Equally Important, the light weighted MobleNetV2 models were computationally efficient and ready for mobile devices or devices of low computational power. These advances empower the development of a resource-efficient and high performing AI-based metastatic breast cancer diagnostic system that can adapt to under-resourced healthcare facilities in developing countries. This research provides an innovative technological solution to address the long delays in metastatic breast cancer diagnosis and the consequent disparity in patient survival outcome in developing countries.
Latest diffusion-based methods for many image restoration tasks outperform traditional models, but they encounter the long-time inference problem. To tackle it, this paper proposes a Wavelet-Based Diffusion Model (WaveDM) with an Efficient Conditional Sampling (ECS) strategy. WaveDM learns the distribution of clean images in the wavelet domain conditioned on the wavelet spectrum of degraded images after wavelet transform, which is more time-saving in each step of sampling than modeling in the spatial domain. In addition, ECS follows the same procedure as the deterministic implicit sampling in the initial sampling period and then stops to predict clean images directly, which reduces the number of total sampling steps to around 5. Evaluations on four benchmark datasets including image raindrop removal, defocus deblurring, demoir\'eing, and denoising demonstrate that WaveDM achieves state-of-the-art performance with the efficiency that is comparable to traditional one-pass methods and over 100 times faster than existing image restoration methods using vanilla diffusion models.
Most existing task-oriented dialog (TOD) systems track dialog states in terms of slots and values and use them to query a database to get relevant knowledge to generate responses. In real-life applications, user utterances are noisier, and thus it is more difficult to accurately track dialog states and correctly secure relevant knowledge. Recently, a progress in question answering and document-grounded dialog systems is retrieval-augmented methods with a knowledge retriever. Inspired by such progress, we propose a retrieval-based method to enhance knowledge selection in TOD systems, which significantly outperforms the traditional database query method for real-life dialogs. Further, we develop latent variable model based semi-supervised learning, which can work with the knowledge retriever to leverage both labeled and unlabeled dialog data. Joint Stochastic Approximation (JSA) algorithm is employed for semi-supervised model training, and the whole system is referred to as that JSA-KRTOD. Experiments are conducted on a real-life dataset from China Mobile Custom-Service, called MobileCS, and show that JSA-KRTOD achieves superior performances in both labeled-only and semi-supervised settings.