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Vishal M. Patel

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Latent Feature-Guided Diffusion Models for Shadow Removal

Dec 04, 2023
Kangfu Mei, Luis Figueroa, Zhe Lin, Zhihong Ding, Scott Cohen, Vishal M. Patel

Recovering textures under shadows has remained a challenging problem due to the difficulty of inferring shadow-free scenes from shadow images. In this paper, we propose the use of diffusion models as they offer a promising approach to gradually refine the details of shadow regions during the diffusion process. Our method improves this process by conditioning on a learned latent feature space that inherits the characteristics of shadow-free images, thus avoiding the limitation of conventional methods that condition on degraded images only. Additionally, we propose to alleviate potential local optima during training by fusing noise features with the diffusion network. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach which outperforms the previous best method by 13% in terms of RMSE on the AISTD dataset. Further, we explore instance-level shadow removal, where our model outperforms the previous best method by 82% in terms of RMSE on the DESOBA dataset.

* project page see 
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Guarding Barlow Twins Against Overfitting with Mixed Samples

Dec 04, 2023
Wele Gedara Chaminda Bandara, Celso M. De Melo, Vishal M. Patel

Self-supervised Learning (SSL) aims to learn transferable feature representations for downstream applications without relying on labeled data. The Barlow Twins algorithm, renowned for its widespread adoption and straightforward implementation compared to its counterparts like contrastive learning methods, minimizes feature redundancy while maximizing invariance to common corruptions. Optimizing for the above objective forces the network to learn useful representations, while avoiding noisy or constant features, resulting in improved downstream task performance with limited adaptation. Despite Barlow Twins' proven effectiveness in pre-training, the underlying SSL objective can inadvertently cause feature overfitting due to the lack of strong interaction between the samples unlike the contrastive learning approaches. From our experiments, we observe that optimizing for the Barlow Twins objective doesn't necessarily guarantee sustained improvements in representation quality beyond a certain pre-training phase, and can potentially degrade downstream performance on some datasets. To address this challenge, we introduce Mixed Barlow Twins, which aims to improve sample interaction during Barlow Twins training via linearly interpolated samples. This results in an additional regularization term to the original Barlow Twins objective, assuming linear interpolation in the input space translates to linearly interpolated features in the feature space. Pre-training with this regularization effectively mitigates feature overfitting and further enhances the downstream performance on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, TinyImageNet, STL-10, and ImageNet datasets. The code and checkpoints are available at:

* Code and checkpoints are available at: 
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Conditional Diffusion Distillation

Oct 02, 2023
Kangfu Mei, Mauricio Delbracio, Hossein Talebi, Zhengzhong Tu, Vishal M. Patel, Peyman Milanfar

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Generative diffusion models provide strong priors for text-to-image generation and thereby serve as a foundation for conditional generation tasks such as image editing, restoration, and super-resolution. However, one major limitation of diffusion models is their slow sampling time. To address this challenge, we present a novel conditional distillation method designed to supplement the diffusion priors with the help of image conditions, allowing for conditional sampling with very few steps. We directly distill the unconditional pre-training in a single stage through joint-learning, largely simplifying the previous two-stage procedures that involve both distillation and conditional finetuning separately. Furthermore, our method enables a new parameter-efficient distillation mechanism that distills each task with only a small number of additional parameters combined with the shared frozen unconditional backbone. Experiments across multiple tasks including super-resolution, image editing, and depth-to-image generation demonstrate that our method outperforms existing distillation techniques for the same sampling time. Notably, our method is the first distillation strategy that can match the performance of the much slower fine-tuned conditional diffusion models.

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Steered Diffusion: A Generalized Framework for Plug-and-Play Conditional Image Synthesis

Sep 30, 2023
Nithin Gopalakrishnan Nair, Anoop Cherian, Suhas Lohit, Ye Wang, Toshiaki Koike-Akino, Vishal M. Patel, Tim K. Marks

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Conditional generative models typically demand large annotated training sets to achieve high-quality synthesis. As a result, there has been significant interest in designing models that perform plug-and-play generation, i.e., to use a predefined or pretrained model, which is not explicitly trained on the generative task, to guide the generative process (e.g., using language). However, such guidance is typically useful only towards synthesizing high-level semantics rather than editing fine-grained details as in image-to-image translation tasks. To this end, and capitalizing on the powerful fine-grained generative control offered by the recent diffusion-based generative models, we introduce Steered Diffusion, a generalized framework for photorealistic zero-shot conditional image generation using a diffusion model trained for unconditional generation. The key idea is to steer the image generation of the diffusion model at inference time via designing a loss using a pre-trained inverse model that characterizes the conditional task. This loss modulates the sampling trajectory of the diffusion process. Our framework allows for easy incorporation of multiple conditions during inference. We present experiments using steered diffusion on several tasks including inpainting, colorization, text-guided semantic editing, and image super-resolution. Our results demonstrate clear qualitative and quantitative improvements over state-of-the-art diffusion-based plug-and-play models while adding negligible additional computational cost.

* Accepted at ICCV 2023 
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Towards Federated Learning Under Resource Constraints via Layer-wise Training and Depth Dropout

Sep 11, 2023
Pengfei Guo, Warren Richard Morningstar, Raviteja Vemulapalli, Karan Singhal, Vishal M. Patel, Philip Andrew Mansfield

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Large machine learning models trained on diverse data have recently seen unprecedented success. Federated learning enables training on private data that may otherwise be inaccessible, such as domain-specific datasets decentralized across many clients. However, federated learning can be difficult to scale to large models when clients have limited resources. This challenge often results in a trade-off between model size and access to diverse data. To mitigate this issue and facilitate training of large models on edge devices, we introduce a simple yet effective strategy, Federated Layer-wise Learning, to simultaneously reduce per-client memory, computation, and communication costs. Clients train just a single layer each round, reducing resource costs considerably with minimal performance degradation. We also introduce Federated Depth Dropout, a complementary technique that randomly drops frozen layers during training, to further reduce resource usage. Coupling these two techniques enables us to effectively train significantly larger models on edge devices. Specifically, we reduce training memory usage by 5x or more in federated self-supervised representation learning and demonstrate that performance in downstream tasks is comparable to conventional federated self-supervised learning.

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AdaptiveSAM: Towards Efficient Tuning of SAM for Surgical Scene Segmentation

Aug 07, 2023
Jay N. Paranjape, Nithin Gopalakrishnan Nair, Shameema Sikder, S. Swaroop Vedula, Vishal M. Patel

Segmentation is a fundamental problem in surgical scene analysis using artificial intelligence. However, the inherent data scarcity in this domain makes it challenging to adapt traditional segmentation techniques for this task. To tackle this issue, current research employs pretrained models and finetunes them on the given data. Even so, these require training deep networks with millions of parameters every time new data becomes available. A recently published foundation model, Segment-Anything (SAM), generalizes well to a large variety of natural images, hence tackling this challenge to a reasonable extent. However, SAM does not generalize well to the medical domain as is without utilizing a large amount of compute resources for fine-tuning and using task-specific prompts. Moreover, these prompts are in the form of bounding-boxes or foreground/background points that need to be annotated explicitly for every image, making this solution increasingly tedious with higher data size. In this work, we propose AdaptiveSAM - an adaptive modification of SAM that can adjust to new datasets quickly and efficiently, while enabling text-prompted segmentation. For finetuning AdaptiveSAM, we propose an approach called bias-tuning that requires a significantly smaller number of trainable parameters than SAM (less than 2\%). At the same time, AdaptiveSAM requires negligible expert intervention since it uses free-form text as prompt and can segment the object of interest with just the label name as prompt. Our experiments show that AdaptiveSAM outperforms current state-of-the-art methods on various medical imaging datasets including surgery, ultrasound and X-ray. Code is available at

* 10 pages, 6 figures, 5 tables 
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Cross-Dataset Adaptation for Instrument Classification in Cataract Surgery Videos

Jul 31, 2023
Jay N. Paranjape, Shameema Sikder, Vishal M. Patel, S. Swaroop Vedula

Surgical tool presence detection is an important part of the intra-operative and post-operative analysis of a surgery. State-of-the-art models, which perform this task well on a particular dataset, however, perform poorly when tested on another dataset. This occurs due to a significant domain shift between the datasets resulting from the use of different tools, sensors, data resolution etc. In this paper, we highlight this domain shift in the commonly performed cataract surgery and propose a novel end-to-end Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) method called the Barlow Adaptor that addresses the problem of distribution shift without requiring any labels from another domain. In addition, we introduce a novel loss called the Barlow Feature Alignment Loss (BFAL) which aligns features across different domains while reducing redundancy and the need for higher batch sizes, thus improving cross-dataset performance. The use of BFAL is a novel approach to address the challenge of domain shift in cataract surgery data. Extensive experiments are conducted on two cataract surgery datasets and it is shown that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art UDA methods by 6%. The code can be found at

* MICCAI 2023 
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Disruptive Autoencoders: Leveraging Low-level features for 3D Medical Image Pre-training

Jul 31, 2023
Jeya Maria Jose Valanarasu, Yucheng Tang, Dong Yang, Ziyue Xu, Can Zhao, Wenqi Li, Vishal M. Patel, Bennett Landman, Daguang Xu, Yufan He, Vishwesh Nath

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Harnessing the power of pre-training on large-scale datasets like ImageNet forms a fundamental building block for the progress of representation learning-driven solutions in computer vision. Medical images are inherently different from natural images as they are acquired in the form of many modalities (CT, MR, PET, Ultrasound etc.) and contain granulated information like tissue, lesion, organs etc. These characteristics of medical images require special attention towards learning features representative of local context. In this work, we focus on designing an effective pre-training framework for 3D radiology images. First, we propose a new masking strategy called local masking where the masking is performed across channel embeddings instead of tokens to improve the learning of local feature representations. We combine this with classical low-level perturbations like adding noise and downsampling to further enable low-level representation learning. To this end, we introduce Disruptive Autoencoders, a pre-training framework that attempts to reconstruct the original image from disruptions created by a combination of local masking and low-level perturbations. Additionally, we also devise a cross-modal contrastive loss (CMCL) to accommodate the pre-training of multiple modalities in a single framework. We curate a large-scale dataset to enable pre-training of 3D medical radiology images (MRI and CT). The proposed pre-training framework is tested across multiple downstream tasks and achieves state-of-the-art performance. Notably, our proposed method tops the public test leaderboard of BTCV multi-organ segmentation challenge.

* Preprint 
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GLSFormer: Gated - Long, Short Sequence Transformer for Step Recognition in Surgical Videos

Jul 20, 2023
Nisarg A. Shah, Shameema Sikder, S. Swaroop Vedula, Vishal M. Patel

Automated surgical step recognition is an important task that can significantly improve patient safety and decision-making during surgeries. Existing state-of-the-art methods for surgical step recognition either rely on separate, multi-stage modeling of spatial and temporal information or operate on short-range temporal resolution when learned jointly. However, the benefits of joint modeling of spatio-temporal features and long-range information are not taken in account. In this paper, we propose a vision transformer-based approach to jointly learn spatio-temporal features directly from sequence of frame-level patches. Our method incorporates a gated-temporal attention mechanism that intelligently combines short-term and long-term spatio-temporal feature representations. We extensively evaluate our approach on two cataract surgery video datasets, namely Cataract-101 and D99, and demonstrate superior performance compared to various state-of-the-art methods. These results validate the suitability of our proposed approach for automated surgical step recognition. Our code is released at:

* Accepted to MICCAI 2023 (Early Accept) 
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Securing Deep Generative Models with Universal Adversarial Signature

May 25, 2023
Yu Zeng, Mo Zhou, Yuan Xue, Vishal M. Patel

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Recent advances in deep generative models have led to the development of methods capable of synthesizing high-quality, realistic images. These models pose threats to society due to their potential misuse. Prior research attempted to mitigate these threats by detecting generated images, but the varying traces left by different generative models make it challenging to create a universal detector capable of generalizing to new, unseen generative models. In this paper, we propose to inject a universal adversarial signature into an arbitrary pre-trained generative model, in order to make its generated contents more detectable and traceable. First, the imperceptible optimal signature for each image can be found by a signature injector through adversarial training. Subsequently, the signature can be incorporated into an arbitrary generator by fine-tuning it with the images processed by the signature injector. In this way, the detector corresponding to the signature can be reused for any fine-tuned generator for tracking the generator identity. The proposed method is validated on the FFHQ and ImageNet datasets with various state-of-the-art generative models, consistently showing a promising detection rate. Code will be made publicly available at \url{}.

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