Item representation learning (IRL) plays an essential role in recommender systems, especially for sequential recommendation. Traditional sequential recommendation models usually utilize ID embeddings to represent items, which are not shared across different domains and lack the transferable ability. Recent studies use pre-trained language models (PLM) for item text embeddings (text-based IRL) that are universally applicable across domains. However, the existing text-based IRL is unaware of the important collaborative filtering (CF) information. In this paper, we propose CoWPiRec, an approach of Collaborative Word-based Pre-trained item representation for Recommendation. To effectively incorporate CF information into text-based IRL, we convert the item-level interaction data to a word graph containing word-level collaborations. Subsequently, we design a novel pre-training task to align the word-level semantic- and CF-related item representation. Extensive experimental results on multiple public datasets demonstrate that compared to state-of-the-art transferable sequential recommenders, CoWPiRec achieves significantly better performances in both fine-tuning and zero-shot settings for cross-scenario recommendation and effectively alleviates the cold-start issue. The code is available at: https://github.com/ysh-1998/CoWPiRec.
Cascading multiple pre-trained models is an effective way to compose an end-to-end system. However, fine-tuning the full cascaded model is parameter and memory inefficient and our observations reveal that only applying adapter modules on cascaded model can not achieve considerable performance as fine-tuning. We propose an automatic and effective adaptive learning method to optimize end-to-end cascaded multi-task models based on Neural Architecture Search (NAS) framework. The candidate adaptive operations on each specific module consist of frozen, inserting an adapter and fine-tuning. We further add a penalty item on the loss to limit the learned structure which takes the amount of trainable parameters into account. The penalty item successfully restrict the searched architecture and the proposed approach is able to search similar tuning scheme with hand-craft, compressing the optimizing parameters to 8.7% corresponding to full fine-tuning on SLURP with an even better performance.
Self-supervised pre-trained models such as HuBERT and WavLM leverage unlabeled speech data for representation learning and offer significantly improve for numerous downstream tasks. Despite the success of these methods, their large memory and strong computational requirements hinder their application on resource restricted devices. Therefore, this paper introduces GenDistiller, a novel knowledge distillation framework to distill hidden representations from teacher network based on generative language model. The generative structure enables the proposed model to generate the target teacher hidden layers autoregressively, considering the interactions between hidden layers without instroducing additional inputs. A two-dimensional attention mechanism is implemented to ensure the causality of hidden layers, while preserving bidirectional attention in the time dimension. Experiments reveal the advantage of the generative distiller over the baseline system that predicts the hidden layers of teacher network directly without a generatvie model.
Fine-grained image recognition is a longstanding computer vision challenge that focuses on differentiating objects belonging to multiple subordinate categories within the same meta-category. Since images belonging to the same meta-category usually share similar visual appearances, mining discriminative visual cues is the key to distinguishing fine-grained categories. Although commonly used image-level data augmentation techniques have achieved great success in generic image classification problems, they are rarely applied in fine-grained scenarios, because their random editing-region behavior is prone to destroy the discriminative visual cues residing in the subtle regions. In this paper, we propose diversifying the training data at the feature-level to alleviate the discriminative region loss problem. Specifically, we produce diversified augmented samples by translating image features along semantically meaningful directions. The semantic directions are estimated with a covariance prediction network, which predicts a sample-wise covariance matrix to adapt to the large intra-class variation inherent in fine-grained images. Furthermore, the covariance prediction network is jointly optimized with the classification network in a meta-learning manner to alleviate the degenerate solution problem. Experiments on four competitive fine-grained recognition benchmarks (CUB-200-2011, Stanford Cars, FGVC Aircrafts, NABirds) demonstrate that our method significantly improves the generalization performance on several popular classification networks (e.g., ResNets, DenseNets, EfficientNets, RegNets and ViT). Combined with a recently proposed method, our semantic data augmentation approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on the CUB-200-2011 dataset. The source code will be released.
In recent years, vision transformers have been introduced into face recognition and analysis and have achieved performance breakthroughs. However, most previous methods generally train a single model or an ensemble of models to perform the desired task, which ignores the synergy among different tasks and fails to achieve improved prediction accuracy, increased data efficiency, and reduced training time. This paper presents a multi-purpose algorithm for simultaneous face recognition, facial expression recognition, age estimation, and face attribute estimation (40 attributes including gender) based on a single Swin Transformer. Our design, the SwinFace, consists of a single shared backbone together with a subnet for each set of related tasks. To address the conflicts among multiple tasks and meet the different demands of tasks, a Multi-Level Channel Attention (MLCA) module is integrated into each task-specific analysis subnet, which can adaptively select the features from optimal levels and channels to perform the desired tasks. Extensive experiments show that the proposed model has a better understanding of the face and achieves excellent performance for all tasks. Especially, it achieves 90.97% accuracy on RAF-DB and 0.22 $\epsilon$-error on CLAP2015, which are state-of-the-art results on facial expression recognition and age estimation respectively. The code and models will be made publicly available at https://github.com/lxq1000/SwinFace.
Early exiting has become a promising approach to improving the inference efficiency of deep networks. By structuring models with multiple classifiers (exits), predictions for ``easy'' samples can be generated at earlier exits, negating the need for executing deeper layers. Current multi-exit networks typically implement linear classifiers at intermediate layers, compelling low-level features to encapsulate high-level semantics. This sub-optimal design invariably undermines the performance of later exits. In this paper, we propose Dynamic Perceiver (Dyn-Perceiver) to decouple the feature extraction procedure and the early classification task with a novel dual-branch architecture. A feature branch serves to extract image features, while a classification branch processes a latent code assigned for classification tasks. Bi-directional cross-attention layers are established to progressively fuse the information of both branches. Early exits are placed exclusively within the classification branch, thus eliminating the need for linear separability in low-level features. Dyn-Perceiver constitutes a versatile and adaptable framework that can be built upon various architectures. Experiments on image classification, action recognition, and object detection demonstrate that our method significantly improves the inference efficiency of different backbones, outperforming numerous competitive approaches across a broad range of computational budgets. Evaluation on both CPU and GPU platforms substantiate the superior practical efficiency of Dyn-Perceiver. Code is available at https://www.github.com/LeapLabTHU/Dynamic_Perceiver.
Long-term time series forecasting plays an important role in various real-world scenarios. Recent deep learning methods for long-term series forecasting tend to capture the intricate patterns of time series by decomposition-based or sampling-based methods. However, most of the extracted patterns may include unpredictable noise and lack good interpretability. Moreover, the multivariate series forecasting methods usually ignore the individual characteristics of each variate, which may affecting the prediction accuracy. To capture the intrinsic patterns of time series, we propose a novel deep learning network architecture, named Multi-resolution Periodic Pattern Network (MPPN), for long-term series forecasting. We first construct context-aware multi-resolution semantic units of time series and employ multi-periodic pattern mining to capture the key patterns of time series. Then, we propose a channel adaptive module to capture the perceptions of multivariate towards different patterns. In addition, we present an entropy-based method for evaluating the predictability of time series and providing an upper bound on the prediction accuracy before forecasting. Our experimental evaluation on nine real-world benchmarks demonstrated that MPPN significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art Transformer-based, decomposition-based and sampling-based methods for long-term series forecasting.
Previous contrastive learning methods for sentence representations often focus on insensitive transformations to produce positive pairs, but neglect the role of sensitive transformations that are harmful to semantic representations. Therefore, we propose an Equivariant Self-Contrastive Learning (ESCL) method to make full use of sensitive transformations, which encourages the learned representations to be sensitive to certain types of transformations with an additional equivariant learning task. Meanwhile, in order to improve practicability and generality, ESCL simplifies the implementations of traditional equivariant contrastive methods to share model parameters from the perspective of multi-task learning. We evaluate our ESCL on semantic textual similarity tasks. The proposed method achieves better results while using fewer learning parameters compared to previous methods.
Cellular traffic prediction is an indispensable part for intelligent telecommunication networks. Nevertheless, due to the frequent user mobility and complex network scheduling mechanisms, cellular traffic often inherits complicated spatial-temporal patterns, making the prediction incredibly challenging. Although recent advanced algorithms such as graph-based prediction approaches have been proposed, they frequently model spatial dependencies based on static or dynamic graphs and neglect the coexisting multiple spatial correlations induced by traffic generation. Meanwhile, some works lack the consideration of the diverse cellular traffic patterns, result in suboptimal prediction results. In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning network architecture, Adaptive Hybrid Spatial-Temporal Graph Neural Network (AHSTGNN), to tackle the cellular traffic prediction problem. First, we apply adaptive hybrid graph learning to learn the compound spatial correlations among cell towers. Second, we implement a Temporal Convolution Module with multi-periodic temporal data input to capture the nonlinear temporal dependencies. In addition, we introduce an extra Spatial-Temporal Adaptive Module to conquer the heterogeneity lying in cell towers. Our experiments on two real-world cellular traffic datasets show AHSTGNN outperforms the state-of-the-art by a significant margin, illustrating the superior scalability of our method for spatial-temporal cellular traffic prediction.
Graphs are widely used to represent the relations among entities. When one owns the complete data, an entire graph can be easily built, therefore performing analysis on the graph is straightforward. However, in many scenarios, it is impractical to centralize the data due to data privacy concerns. An organization or party only keeps a part of the whole graph data, i.e., graph data is isolated from different parties. Recently, Federated Learning (FL) has been proposed to solve the data isolation issue, mainly for Euclidean data. It is still a challenge to apply FL on graph data because graphs contain topological information which is notorious for its non-IID nature and is hard to partition. In this work, we propose a novel FL framework for graph data, FedCog, to efficiently handle coupled graphs that are a kind of distributed graph data, but widely exist in a variety of real-world applications such as mobile carriers' communication networks and banks' transaction networks. We theoretically prove the correctness and security of FedCog. Experimental results demonstrate that our method FedCog significantly outperforms traditional FL methods on graphs. Remarkably, our FedCog improves the accuracy of node classification tasks by up to 14.7%.