Knowledge Base Question Answering (KBQA) aims to derive answers to natural language questions over large-scale knowledge bases (KBs), which are generally divided into two research components: knowledge retrieval and semantic parsing. However, three core challenges remain, including inefficient knowledge retrieval, retrieval errors adversely affecting semantic parsing, and the complexity of previous KBQA methods. In the era of large language models (LLMs), we introduce ChatKBQA, a novel generate-then-retrieve KBQA framework built on fine-tuning open-source LLMs such as Llama-2, ChatGLM2 and Baichuan2. ChatKBQA proposes generating the logical form with fine-tuned LLMs first, then retrieving and replacing entities and relations through an unsupervised retrieval method, which improves both generation and retrieval more straightforwardly. Experimental results reveal that ChatKBQA achieves new state-of-the-art performance on standard KBQA datasets, WebQSP, and ComplexWebQuestions (CWQ). This work also provides a new paradigm for combining LLMs with knowledge graphs (KGs) for interpretable and knowledge-required question answering. Our code is publicly available.
Beyond traditional binary relational facts, n-ary relational knowledge graphs (NKGs) are comprised of n-ary relational facts containing more than two entities, which are closer to real-world facts with broader applications. However, the construction of NKGs still significantly relies on manual labor, and n-ary relation extraction still remains at a course-grained level, which is always in a single schema and fixed arity of entities. To address these restrictions, we propose Text2NKG, a novel fine-grained n-ary relation extraction framework for n-ary relational knowledge graph construction. We introduce a span-tuple classification approach with hetero-ordered merging to accomplish fine-grained n-ary relation extraction in different arity. Furthermore, Text2NKG supports four typical NKG schemas: hyper-relational schema, event-based schema, role-based schema, and hypergraph-based schema, with high flexibility and practicality. Experimental results demonstrate that Text2NKG outperforms the previous state-of-the-art model by nearly 20\% points in the $F_1$ scores on the fine-grained n-ary relation extraction benchmark in the hyper-relational schema. Our code and datasets are publicly available.
As models for nature language processing (NLP), computer vision (CV) and recommendation systems (RS) require surging computation, a large number of GPUs/TPUs are paralleled as a large batch (LB) to improve training throughput. However, training such LB tasks often meets large generalization gap and downgrades final precision, which limits enlarging the batch size. In this work, we develop the variance reduced gradient descent technique (VRGD) based on the gradient signal to noise ratio (GSNR) and apply it onto popular optimizers such as SGD/Adam/LARS/LAMB. We carry out a theoretical analysis of convergence rate to explain its fast training dynamics, and a generalization analysis to demonstrate its smaller generalization gap on LB training. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that VRGD can accelerate training ($1\sim 2 \times$), narrow generalization gap and improve final accuracy. We push the batch size limit of BERT pretraining up to 128k/64k and DLRM to 512k without noticeable accuracy loss. We improve ImageNet Top-1 accuracy at 96k by $0.52pp$ than LARS. The generalization gap of BERT and ImageNet training is significantly reduce by over $65\%$.
We propose DISC-LawLLM, an intelligent legal system utilizing large language models (LLMs) to provide a wide range of legal services. We adopt legal syllogism prompting strategies to construct supervised fine-tuning datasets in the Chinese Judicial domain and fine-tune LLMs with legal reasoning capability. We augment LLMs with a retrieval module to enhance models' ability to access and utilize external legal knowledge. A comprehensive legal benchmark, DISC-Law-Eval, is presented to evaluate intelligent legal systems from both objective and subjective dimensions. Quantitative and qualitative results on DISC-Law-Eval demonstrate the effectiveness of our system in serving various users across diverse legal scenarios. The detailed resources are available at https://github.com/FudanDISC/DISC-LawLLM.
With the fast growth of parameter size, it becomes increasingly challenging to deploy large generative models as they typically require large GPU memory consumption and massive computation. Unstructured model pruning has been a common approach to reduce both GPU memory footprint and the overall computation while retaining good model accuracy. However, the existing solutions do not provide a highly-efficient support for handling unstructured sparsity on modern GPUs, especially on the highly-structured Tensor Core hardware. Therefore, we propose Flash-LLM for enabling low-cost and highly-efficient large generative model inference with the sophisticated support of unstructured sparsity on high-performance but highly restrictive Tensor Cores. Based on our key observation that the main bottleneck of generative model inference is the several skinny matrix multiplications for which Tensor Cores would be significantly under-utilized due to low computational intensity, we propose a general Load-as-Sparse and Compute-as-Dense methodology for unstructured sparse matrix multiplication. The basic insight is to address the significant memory bandwidth bottleneck while tolerating redundant computations that are not critical for end-to-end performance on Tensor Cores. Based on this, we design an effective software framework for Tensor Core based unstructured SpMM, leveraging on-chip resources for efficient sparse data extraction and computation/memory-access overlapping. At SpMM kernel level, Flash-LLM significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art library, i.e., Sputnik and SparTA by an average of 2.9x and 1.5x, respectively. At end-to-end framework level on OPT-30B/66B/175B models, for tokens per GPU-second, Flash-LLM achieves up to 3.8x and 3.6x improvement over DeepSpeed and FasterTransformer, respectively, with significantly lower inference cost.
High-dimensional compositional data are prevalent in many applications. The simplex constraint poses intrinsic challenges to inferring the conditional dependence relationships among the components forming a composition, as encoded by a large precision matrix. We introduce a precise specification of the compositional precision matrix and relate it to its basis counterpart, which is shown to be asymptotically identifiable under suitable sparsity assumptions. By exploiting this connection, we propose a composition adaptive regularized estimation (CARE) method for estimating the sparse basis precision matrix. We derive rates of convergence for the estimator and provide theoretical guarantees on support recovery and data-driven parameter tuning. Our theory reveals an intriguing trade-off between identification and estimation, thereby highlighting the blessing of dimensionality in compositional data analysis. In particular, in sufficiently high dimensions, the CARE estimator achieves minimax optimality and performs as well as if the basis were observed. We further discuss how our framework can be extended to handle data containing zeros, including sampling zeros and structural zeros. The advantages of CARE over existing methods are illustrated by simulation studies and an application to inferring microbial ecological networks in the human gut.
Vision and Language Models (VLMs), such as CLIP, have enabled visual recognition of a potentially unlimited set of categories described by text prompts. However, for the best visual recognition performance, these models still require tuning to better fit the data distributions of the downstream tasks, in order to overcome the domain shift from the web-based pre-training data. Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to effectively tune VLMs without any paired data, and in particular to effectively improve VLMs visual recognition performance using text-only training data generated by Large Language Models (LLMs). In this paper, we dive deeper into this exciting text-only VLM training approach and explore ways it can be significantly further improved taking the specifics of the downstream task into account when sampling text data from LLMs. In particular, compared to the SOTA text-only VLM training approach, we demonstrate up to 8.4% performance improvement in (cross) domain-specific adaptation, up to 8.7% improvement in fine-grained recognition, and 3.1% overall average improvement in zero-shot classification compared to strong baselines.
The analysis and mining of user heterogeneous behavior are of paramount importance in recommendation systems. However, the conventional approach of incorporating various types of heterogeneous behavior into recommendation models leads to feature sparsity and knowledge fragmentation issues. To address this challenge, we propose a novel approach for personalized recommendation via Large Language Model (LLM), by extracting and fusing heterogeneous knowledge from user heterogeneous behavior information. In addition, by combining heterogeneous knowledge and recommendation tasks, instruction tuning is performed on LLM for personalized recommendations. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can effectively integrate user heterogeneous behavior and significantly improve recommendation performance.