We present SHIFT3D, a differentiable pipeline for generating 3D shapes that are structurally plausible yet challenging to 3D object detectors. In safety-critical applications like autonomous driving, discovering such novel challenging objects can offer insight into unknown vulnerabilities of 3D detectors. By representing objects with a signed distanced function (SDF), we show that gradient error signals allow us to smoothly deform the shape or pose of a 3D object in order to confuse a downstream 3D detector. Importantly, the objects generated by SHIFT3D physically differ from the baseline object yet retain a semantically recognizable shape. Our approach provides interpretable failure modes for modern 3D object detectors, and can aid in preemptive discovery of potential safety risks within 3D perception systems before these risks become critical failures.
We demonstrate the first large-scale application of model-based generative adversarial imitation learning (MGAIL) to the task of dense urban self-driving. We augment standard MGAIL using a hierarchical model to enable generalization to arbitrary goal routes, and measure performance using a closed-loop evaluation framework with simulated interactive agents. We train policies from expert trajectories collected from real vehicles driving over 100,000 miles in San Francisco, and demonstrate a steerable policy that can navigate robustly even in a zero-shot setting, generalizing to synthetic scenarios with novel goals that never occurred in real-world driving. We also demonstrate the importance of mixing closed-loop MGAIL losses with open-loop behavior cloning losses, and show our best policy approaches the performance of the expert. We evaluate our imitative model in both average and challenging scenarios, and show how it can serve as a useful prior to plan successful trajectories.
We study the robustness of reinforcement learning (RL) with adversarially perturbed state observations, which aligns with the setting of many adversarial attacks to deep reinforcement learning (DRL) and is also important for rolling out real-world RL agent under unpredictable sensing noise. With a fixed agent policy, we demonstrate that an optimal adversary to perturb state observations can be found, which is guaranteed to obtain the worst case agent reward. For DRL settings, this leads to a novel empirical adversarial attack to RL agents via a learned adversary that is much stronger than previous ones. To enhance the robustness of an agent, we propose a framework of alternating training with learned adversaries (ATLA), which trains an adversary online together with the agent using policy gradient following the optimal adversarial attack framework. Additionally, inspired by the analysis of state-adversarial Markov decision process (SA-MDP), we show that past states and actions (history) can be useful for learning a robust agent, and we empirically find a LSTM based policy can be more robust under adversaries. Empirical evaluations on a few continuous control environments show that ATLA achieves state-of-the-art performance under strong adversaries. Our code is available at https://github.com/huanzhang12/ATLA_robust_RL.
* Accepted by ICLR 2021. Huan Zhang and Hongge Chen contributed equally
Recent papers have demonstrated that ensemble stumps and trees could be vulnerable to small input perturbations, so robustness verification and defense for those models have become an important research problem. However, due to the structure of decision trees, where each node makes decision purely based on one feature value, all the previous works only consider the $\ell_\infty$ norm perturbation. To study robustness with respect to a general $\ell_p$ norm perturbation, one has to consider the correlation between perturbations on different features, which has not been handled by previous algorithms. In this paper, we study the problem of robustness verification and certified defense with respect to general $\ell_p$ norm perturbations for ensemble decision stumps and trees. For robustness verification of ensemble stumps, we prove that complete verification is NP-complete for $p\in(0, \infty)$ while polynomial time algorithms exist for $p=0$ or $\infty$. For $p\in(0, \infty)$ we develop an efficient dynamic programming based algorithm for sound verification of ensemble stumps. For ensemble trees, we generalize the previous multi-level robustness verification algorithm to $\ell_p$ norm. We demonstrate the first certified defense method for training ensemble stumps and trees with respect to $\ell_p$ norm perturbations, and verify its effectiveness empirically on real datasets.
Multi-stage training and knowledge transfer, from a large-scale pretraining task to various finetuning tasks, have revolutionized natural language processing and computer vision resulting in state-of-the-art performance improvements. In this paper, we develop a multi-stage influence function score to track predictions from a finetuned model all the way back to the pretraining data. With this score, we can identify the pretraining examples in the pretraining task that contribute most to a prediction in the finetuning task. The proposed multi-stage influence function generalizes the original influence function for a single model in (Koh & Liang, 2017), thereby enabling influence computation through both pretrained and finetuned models. We study two different scenarios with the pretrained embeddings fixed or updated in the finetuning tasks. We test our proposed method in various experiments to show its effectiveness and potential applications.
Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) is vulnerable to small adversarial perturbations on state observations. These perturbations do not alter the environment directly but can mislead the agent into making suboptimal decisions. We analyze the Markov Decision Process (MDP) under this threat model and utilize tools from the neural net-work verification literature to enable robust train-ing for DRL under observational perturbations. Our techniques are general and can be applied to both Deep Q Networks (DQN) and Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) algorithms for discrete and continuous action control problems. We demonstrate that our proposed training procedure significantly improves the robustness of DQN and DDPG agents under a suite of strong white-box attacks on observations, including a few novel attacks we specifically craft. Additionally, our training procedure can produce provable certificates for the robustness of a Deep RL agent.
It is known that deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial attacks. The so-called physical adversarial examples deceive DNN-based decision makers by attaching adversarial patches to real objects. However, most of the existing works on physical adversarial attacks focus on static objects such as glass frames, stop signs and images attached to cardboard. In this work, we propose Adversarial T-shirts, a robust physical adversarial example for evading person detectors even if it could undergo non-rigid deformation due to a moving person's pose changes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that models the effect of deformation for designing physical adversarial examples with respect to non-rigid objects such as T-shirts. We show that the proposed method achieves 74% and 57% attack success rates in digital and physical worlds respectively against YOLOv2. In contrast, the state-of-the-art physical attack method to fool a person detector only achieves 18% attack success rate. Furthermore, by leveraging min-max optimization, we extend our method to the ensemble attack setting against two object detectors YOLO-v2 and Faster R-CNN simultaneously.
It is known that deep neural networks (DNNs) could be vulnerable to adversarial attacks. The so-called physical adversarial examples deceive DNN-based decision makers by attaching adversarial patches to real objects. However, most of the existing works on physical adversarial attacks focus on static objects such as glass frame, stop sign and image attached to a cardboard. In this work, we proposed adversarial T-shirt, a robust physical adversarial example for evading person detectors even if it suffers from deformation due toa moving person's pose change. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of deformation is first modeled for designing physical adversarial examples with respect to non-rigid objects such as T-shirts. We show that the proposed method achieves 79% and 63% attack success rates in digital and physical worlds respectively against YOLOv2. In contrast, the state-of-the-art physical attack method to fool a person detector only achieves 27% attack success rate. Furthermore, by leveraging min-max optimization, we extend our method to the ensemble attack setting against object detectors YOLOv2 and Faster R-CNN simultaneously.
We study the robustness verification problem for tree-based models, including decision trees, random forests (RFs) and gradient boosted decision trees (GBDTs). Formal robustness verification of decision tree ensembles involves finding the exact minimal adversarial perturbation or a guaranteed lower bound of it. Existing approaches find the minimal adversarial perturbation by a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem, which takes exponential time so is impractical for large ensembles. Although this verification problem is NP-complete in general, we give a more precise complexity characterization. We show that there is a simple linear time algorithm for verifying a single tree, and for tree ensembles, the verification problem can be cast as a max-clique problem on a multi-partite graph with bounded boxicity. For low dimensional problems when boxicity can be viewed as constant, this reformulation leads to a polynomial time algorithm. For general problems, by exploiting the boxicity of the graph, we develop an efficient multi-level verification algorithm that can give tight lower bounds on the robustness of decision tree ensembles, while allowing iterative improvement and any-time termination. OnRF/GBDT models trained on 10 datasets, our algorithm is hundreds of times faster than the previous approach that requires solving MILPs, and is able to give tight robustness verification bounds on large GBDTs with hundreds of deep trees.