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Feng Liu

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Fast View Synthesis of Casual Videos

Dec 04, 2023
Yao-Chih Lee, Zhoutong Zhang, Kevin Blackburn-Matzen, Simon Niklaus, Jianming Zhang, Jia-Bin Huang, Feng Liu

Novel view synthesis from an in-the-wild video is difficult due to challenges like scene dynamics and lack of parallax. While existing methods have shown promising results with implicit neural radiance fields, they are slow to train and render. This paper revisits explicit video representations to synthesize high-quality novel views from a monocular video efficiently. We treat static and dynamic video content separately. Specifically, we build a global static scene model using an extended plane-based scene representation to synthesize temporally coherent novel video. Our plane-based scene representation is augmented with spherical harmonics and displacement maps to capture view-dependent effects and model non-planar complex surface geometry. We opt to represent the dynamic content as per-frame point clouds for efficiency. While such representations are inconsistency-prone, minor temporal inconsistencies are perceptually masked due to motion. We develop a method to quickly estimate such a hybrid video representation and render novel views in real time. Our experiments show that our method can render high-quality novel views from an in-the-wild video with comparable quality to state-of-the-art methods while being 100x faster in training and enabling real-time rendering.

* Project page: 
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Fast Controllable Diffusion Models for Undersampled MRI Reconstruction

Dec 01, 2023
Wei Jiang, Zhuang Xiong, Feng Liu, Nan Ye, Hongfu Sun

Supervised deep learning methods have shown promise in undersampled Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction, but their requirement for paired data limits their generalizability to the diverse MRI acquisition parameters. Recently, unsupervised controllable generative diffusion models have been applied to undersampled MRI reconstruction, without paired data or model retraining for different MRI acquisitions. However, diffusion models are generally slow in sampling and state-of-the-art acceleration techniques can lead to sub-optimal results when directly applied to the controllable generation process. This study introduces a new algorithm called Predictor-Projector-Noisor (PPN), which enhances and accelerates controllable generation of diffusion models for undersampled MRI reconstruction. Our results demonstrate that PPN produces high-fidelity MR images that conform to undersampled k-space measurements with significantly shorter reconstruction time than other controllable sampling methods. In addition, the unsupervised PPN accelerated diffusion models are adaptable to different MRI acquisition parameters, making them more practical for clinical use than supervised learning techniques.

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Parkinson Disease classification Using Contrastive Graph Cross-View Learning with Multimodal Fusion of SPECT Images and Clinical Features

Nov 25, 2023
Jun-En Ding, Chien-Chin Hsu, Feng Liu

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative neurological disorder that impacts movement and afflicts over 10 million people worldwide. Previous researches have come up with deep learning models for predicting Parkinson's disease primarily using medical images and didn't leverage the manifold structure in the dataset. Our study introduces a multimodal approach with both image and non-image features with a contrastive cross-view graph fusion for Parkinson's disease classification. Specifically, we designed a multimodal co-attention module to integrate embeddings from two distinct graph views derived from low dimensional representation of images and clinical features, enabling the extraction of more stable and structured features from the multiview data. Additionally, we have devised a simplified fusion method utilizing a contrastive loss for positive and negative pairs, to enhance the model's overall cross-view fusion learning capabilities. In our experiments, the graph-view multimodal approach can achieve an accuracy rate of 91% and an AUC of 92.8% in five-fold cross-validation, and it also demonstrates superior predictive capabilities on non-image data as compared to methods that rely solely on machine learning methods.

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Single Image Compressed Sensing MRI via a Self-Supervised Deep Denoising Approach

Nov 22, 2023
Marlon Bran Lorenzana, Feng Liu, Shekhar S. Chandra

Popular methods in compressed sensing (CS) are dependent on deep learning (DL), where large amounts of data are used to train non-linear reconstruction models. However, ensuring generalisability over and access to multiple datasets is challenging to realise for real-world applications. To address these concerns, this paper proposes a single image, self-supervised (SS) CS-MRI framework that enables a joint deep and sparse regularisation of CS artefacts. The approach effectively dampens structured CS artefacts, which can be difficult to remove assuming sparse reconstruction, or relying solely on the inductive biases of CNN to produce noise-free images. Image quality is thereby improved compared to either approach alone. Metrics are evaluated using Cartesian 1D masks on a brain and knee dataset, with PSNR improving by 2-4dB on average.

* 5 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, conference 
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Plug-and-Play Latent Feature Editing for Orientation-Adaptive Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Neural Networks

Nov 14, 2023
Yang Gao, Zhuang Xiong, Shanshan Shan, Yin Liu, Pengfei Rong, Min Li, Alan H Wilman, G. Bruce Pike, Feng Liu, Hongfu Sun

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a post-processing technique for deriving tissue magnetic susceptibility distribution from MRI phase measurements. Deep learning (DL) algorithms hold great potential for solving the ill-posed QSM reconstruction problem. However, a significant challenge facing current DL-QSM approaches is their limited adaptability to magnetic dipole field orientation variations during training and testing. In this work, we propose a novel Orientation-Adaptive Latent Feature Editing (OA-LFE) module to learn the encoding of acquisition orientation vectors and seamlessly integrate them into the latent features of deep networks. Importantly, it can be directly Plug-and-Play (PnP) into various existing DL-QSM architectures, enabling reconstructions of QSM from arbitrary magnetic dipole orientations. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by combining the OA-LFE module into our previously proposed phase-to-susceptibility single-step instant QSM (iQSM) network, which was initially tailored for pure-axial acquisitions. The proposed OA-LFE-empowered iQSM, which we refer to as iQSM+, is trained in a self-supervised manner on a specially-designed simulation brain dataset. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on simulated and in vivo human brain datasets, encompassing subjects ranging from healthy individuals to those with pathological conditions. These experiments involve various MRI platforms (3T and 7T) and aim to compare our proposed iQSM+ against several established QSM reconstruction frameworks, including the original iQSM. The iQSM+ yields QSM images with significantly improved accuracies and mitigates artifacts, surpassing other state-of-the-art DL-QSM algorithms.

* 13pages, 9figures 
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LRM: Large Reconstruction Model for Single Image to 3D

Nov 08, 2023
Yicong Hong, Kai Zhang, Jiuxiang Gu, Sai Bi, Yang Zhou, Difan Liu, Feng Liu, Kalyan Sunkavalli, Trung Bui, Hao Tan

We propose the first Large Reconstruction Model (LRM) that predicts the 3D model of an object from a single input image within just 5 seconds. In contrast to many previous methods that are trained on small-scale datasets such as ShapeNet in a category-specific fashion, LRM adopts a highly scalable transformer-based architecture with 500 million learnable parameters to directly predict a neural radiance field (NeRF) from the input image. We train our model in an end-to-end manner on massive multi-view data containing around 1 million objects, including both synthetic renderings from Objaverse and real captures from MVImgNet. This combination of a high-capacity model and large-scale training data empowers our model to be highly generalizable and produce high-quality 3D reconstructions from various testing inputs including real-world in-the-wild captures and images from generative models. Video demos and interactable 3D meshes can be found on this website:

* 23 pages 
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Out-of-distribution Detection Learning with Unreliable Out-of-distribution Sources

Nov 06, 2023
Haotian Zheng, Qizhou Wang, Zhen Fang, Xiaobo Xia, Feng Liu, Tongliang Liu, Bo Han

Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection discerns OOD data where the predictor cannot make valid predictions as in-distribution (ID) data, thereby increasing the reliability of open-world classification. However, it is typically hard to collect real out-of-distribution (OOD) data for training a predictor capable of discerning ID and OOD patterns. This obstacle gives rise to data generation-based learning methods, synthesizing OOD data via data generators for predictor training without requiring any real OOD data. Related methods typically pre-train a generator on ID data and adopt various selection procedures to find those data likely to be the OOD cases. However, generated data may still coincide with ID semantics, i.e., mistaken OOD generation remains, confusing the predictor between ID and OOD data. To this end, we suggest that generated data (with mistaken OOD generation) can be used to devise an auxiliary OOD detection task to facilitate real OOD detection. Specifically, we can ensure that learning from such an auxiliary task is beneficial if the ID and the OOD parts have disjoint supports, with the help of a well-designed training procedure for the predictor. Accordingly, we propose a powerful data generation-based learning method named Auxiliary Task-based OOD Learning (ATOL) that can relieve the mistaken OOD generation. We conduct extensive experiments under various OOD detection setups, demonstrating the effectiveness of our method against its advanced counterparts.

* Accepted by NeurIPS 2023 
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Learning to Augment Distributions for Out-of-Distribution Detection

Nov 03, 2023
Qizhou Wang, Zhen Fang, Yonggang Zhang, Feng Liu, Yixuan Li, Bo Han

Open-world classification systems should discern out-of-distribution (OOD) data whose labels deviate from those of in-distribution (ID) cases, motivating recent studies in OOD detection. Advanced works, despite their promising progress, may still fail in the open world, owing to the lack of knowledge about unseen OOD data in advance. Although one can access auxiliary OOD data (distinct from unseen ones) for model training, it remains to analyze how such auxiliary data will work in the open world. To this end, we delve into such a problem from a learning theory perspective, finding that the distribution discrepancy between the auxiliary and the unseen real OOD data is the key to affecting the open-world detection performance. Accordingly, we propose Distributional-Augmented OOD Learning (DAL), alleviating the OOD distribution discrepancy by crafting an OOD distribution set that contains all distributions in a Wasserstein ball centered on the auxiliary OOD distribution. We justify that the predictor trained over the worst OOD data in the ball can shrink the OOD distribution discrepancy, thus improving the open-world detection performance given only the auxiliary OOD data. We conduct extensive evaluations across representative OOD detection setups, demonstrating the superiority of our DAL over its advanced counterparts.

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Partition Speeds Up Learning Implicit Neural Representations Based on Exponential-Increase Hypothesis

Oct 22, 2023
Ke Liu, Feng Liu, Haishuai Wang, Ning Ma, Jiajun Bu, Bo Han

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$\textit{Implicit neural representations}$ (INRs) aim to learn a $\textit{continuous function}$ (i.e., a neural network) to represent an image, where the input and output of the function are pixel coordinates and RGB/Gray values, respectively. However, images tend to consist of many objects whose colors are not perfectly consistent, resulting in the challenge that image is actually a $\textit{discontinuous piecewise function}$ and cannot be well estimated by a continuous function. In this paper, we empirically investigate that if a neural network is enforced to fit a discontinuous piecewise function to reach a fixed small error, the time costs will increase exponentially with respect to the boundaries in the spatial domain of the target signal. We name this phenomenon the $\textit{exponential-increase}$ hypothesis. Under the $\textit{exponential-increase}$ hypothesis, learning INRs for images with many objects will converge very slowly. To address this issue, we first prove that partitioning a complex signal into several sub-regions and utilizing piecewise INRs to fit that signal can significantly speed up the convergence. Based on this fact, we introduce a simple partition mechanism to boost the performance of two INR methods for image reconstruction: one for learning INRs, and the other for learning-to-learn INRs. In both cases, we partition an image into different sub-regions and dedicate smaller networks for each part. In addition, we further propose two partition rules based on regular grids and semantic segmentation maps, respectively. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed partitioning methods in terms of learning INR for a single image (ordinary learning framework) and the learning-to-learn framework.

* Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision. 2023 
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