This paper addresses the problem of designing optimal control policies for mobile robots with mission and safety requirements specified using Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). We consider robots with unknown stochastic dynamics operating in environments with unknown geometric structure. The robots are equipped with sensors allowing them to detect obstacles. Our goal is to synthesize a control policy that maximizes the probability of satisfying an LTL-encoded task in the presence of motion and environmental uncertainty. Several deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms have been proposed recently to address similar problems. A common limitation in related works is that of slow learning performance. In order to address this issue, we propose a novel DRL algorithm, which has the capability to learn control policies at a notably faster rate compared to similar methods. Its sample efficiency is due to a mission-driven exploration strategy that prioritizes exploration towards directions that may contribute to mission accomplishment. Identifying these directions relies on an automaton representation of the LTL task as well as a learned neural network that (partially) models the unknown system dynamics. We provide comparative experiments demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm on robot navigation tasks in unknown environments.
In field environments, numerous robots necessitate manual intervention for restoration of functionality post a turnover, resulting in diminished operational efficiency. This study presents an innovative design solution for a reversible omnidirectional mobile robot denoted as CuRobot, featuring a cube structure, thereby facilitating uninterrupted omnidirectional movement even in the event of flipping. The incorporation of eight conical wheels at the cube vertices ensures consistent omnidirectional motion no matter which face of the cube contacts the ground. Additionally, a kinematic model is formulated for CuRobot, accompanied by the development of a trajectory tracking controller utilizing model predictive control. Through simulation experiments, the correlation between trajectory tracking accuracy and the robot's motion direction is examined. Furthermore, the robot's proficiency in omnidirectional mobility and sustained movement post-flipping is substantiated via both simulation and prototype experiments. This design reduces the inefficiencies associated with manual intervention, thereby increasing the operational robustness of robots in field environments.
Single-cell multi-view clustering enables the exploration of cellular heterogeneity within the same cell from different views. Despite the development of several multi-view clustering methods, two primary challenges persist. Firstly, most existing methods treat the information from both single-cell RNA (scRNA) and single-cell Assay of Transposase Accessible Chromatin (scATAC) views as equally significant, overlooking the substantial disparity in data richness between the two views. This oversight frequently leads to a degradation in overall performance. Additionally, the majority of clustering methods necessitate manual specification of the number of clusters by users. However, for biologists dealing with cell data, precisely determining the number of distinct cell types poses a formidable challenge. To this end, we introduce scUNC, an innovative multi-view clustering approach tailored for single-cell data, which seamlessly integrates information from different views without the need for a predefined number of clusters. The scUNC method comprises several steps: initially, it employs a cross-view fusion network to create an effective embedding, which is then utilized to generate initial clusters via community detection. Subsequently, the clusters are automatically merged and optimized until no further clusters can be merged. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of scUNC using three distinct single-cell datasets. The results underscored that scUNC outperforms the other baseline methods.
Several methods have been proposed recently to learn neural network (NN) controllers for autonomous agents, with unknown and stochastic dynamics, tasked with complex missions captured by Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Due to the sample-inefficiency of the majority of these works, compositional learning methods have been proposed decomposing the LTL specification into smaller sub-tasks. Then, separate controllers are learned and composed to satisfy the original task. A key challenge within these approaches is that they often lack safety guarantees or the provided guarantees are impractical. This paper aims to address this challenge. Particularly, we consider autonomous systems with unknown and stochastic dynamics and LTL-encoded tasks. We assume that the system is equipped with a finite set of base skills modeled by trained NN feedback controllers. Our goal is to check if there exists a temporal composition of the trained NN controllers - and if so, to compute it - that will yield a composite system behavior that satisfies the assigned LTL task with probability one. We propose a new approach that relies on a novel integration of automata theory and data-driven reachability analysis tools for NN-controlled stochastic systems. The resulting neuro-symbolic controller allows the agent to generate safe behaviors for unseen complex temporal logic tasks in a zero-shot fashion by leveraging its base skills. We show correctness of the proposed method and we provide conditions under which it is complete. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that designs verified temporal compositions of NN controllers for unknown and stochastic systems. Finally, we provide extensive numerical simulations and hardware experiments on robot navigation tasks to demonstrate the proposed method.
Communication systems suffer from the mixed noise consisting of both non-Gaussian impulsive noise (IN) and white Gaussian noise (WGN) in many practical applications. However, there is little literature about the channel capacity under mixed noise. In this paper, we prove the existence of the capacity under p-th moment constraint and show that there are only finite mass points in the capacity-achieving distribution. Moreover, we provide lower and upper capacity bounds with closed forms. It is shown that the lower bounds can degenerate to the well-known Shannon formula under special scenarios. In addition, the capacity for specific modulations and the corresponding lower bounds are discussed. Numerical results reveal that the capacity decreases when the impulsiveness of the mixed noise becomes dominant and the obtained capacity bounds are shown to be very tight.
The socially-aware navigation system has evolved to adeptly avoid various obstacles while performing multiple tasks, such as point-to-point navigation, human-following, and -guiding. However, a prominent gap persists: in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), the procedure of communicating commands to robots demands intricate mathematical formulations. Furthermore, the transition between tasks does not quite possess the intuitive control and user-centric interactivity that one would desire. In this work, we propose an LLM-driven interactive multimodal multitask robot navigation framework, termed LIM2N, to solve the above new challenge in the navigation field. We achieve this by first introducing a multimodal interaction framework where language and hand-drawn inputs can serve as navigation constraints and control objectives. Next, a reinforcement learning agent is built to handle multiple tasks with the received information. Crucially, LIM2N creates smooth cooperation among the reasoning of multimodal input, multitask planning, and adaptation and processing of the intelligent sensing modules in the complicated system. Extensive experiments are conducted in both simulation and the real world demonstrating that LIM2N has superior user needs understanding, alongside an enhanced interactive experience.
Symbiotic radio (SR) is a promising technique to support cellular Internet-of-Things (IoT) by forming a mutualistic relationship between IoT and cellular transmissions. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-user multi-IoT-device SR system to enable massive access in cellular IoT. In the considered system, the base station (BS) transmits information to multiple cellular users, and a number of IoT devices simultaneously backscatter their information to these users via the cellular signal. The cellular users jointly decode the information from the BS and IoT devices. Noting that the reflective links from the IoT devices can be regarded as the channel uncertainty of the direct links, we apply the robust design method to design the beamforming vectors at the BS. Specifically, the transmit power is minimized under the cellular transmission outage probability constraints and IoT transmission sum rate constraints. The algorithm based on semi-definite programming and difference-of-convex programming is proposed to solve the power minimization problem. Moreover, we consider a special case where each cellular user is associated with several adjacent IoT devices and propose a direction of arrival (DoA)-based transmit beamforming design approach. The DoA-based approach requires only the DoA and angular spread (AS) of the direct links instead of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of the reflective link channels, leading to a significant reduction in the channel feedback overhead. Simulation results have substantiated the multi-user multi-IoT-device SR system and the effectiveness of the proposed beamforming approaches. It is shown that the DoA-based beamforming approach achieves comparable performance as the CSI-based approach in the special case when the ASs are small.
Crocodiles, known as one of the oldest and most resilient species on Earth, have demonstrated remarkable locomotor abilities both on land and in water, evolving over millennia to adapt to diverse environments. In this paper, we draw inspiration from crocodiles and introduce a highly biomimetic crocodile robot equipped with multiple degrees of freedom and articulated trunk joints. This design is based on a comprehensive analysis of the structural and motion characteristics observed in real crocodiles. The bionic crocodile robot has the problem of limb-torso incoordination during movement, in order to solve this problem, we apply the D-H method for both forward and inverse kinematics analysis of the robot's legs and spine. Through a series of simulation experiments, we investigate the robot's stability of motion, fault tolerance, and adaptability to the environment in two motor pattern: with and without the involvement of the spine and tail in its movements. Experiment results demonstrate that the bionic crocodile robot exhibits superior motion performance when the spine and tail cooperate with the extremities. This research not only showcases the potential of biomimicry in robotics but also underscores the significance of understanding how nature's designs can inform and enhance our technological innovations.
This paper delves into the capabilities of large language models (LLMs), specifically focusing on advancing the theoretical comprehension of chain-of-thought prompting. We investigate how LLMs can be effectively induced to generate a coherent chain of thoughts. To achieve this, we introduce a two-level hierarchical graphical model tailored for natural language generation. Within this framework, we establish a compelling geometrical convergence rate that gauges the likelihood of an LLM-generated chain of thoughts compared to those originating from the true language. Our findings provide a theoretical justification for the ability of LLMs to produce the correct sequence of thoughts (potentially) explaining performance gains in tasks demanding reasoning skills.