Monocular 3D Object Detection is an essential task for autonomous driving. Meanwhile, accurate 3D object detection from pure images is very challenging due to the loss of depth information. Most existing image-based methods infer objects' location in 3D space based on their 2D sizes on the image plane, which usually ignores the intrinsic position clues from images, leading to unsatisfactory performances. Motivated by the fact that humans could leverage the bottom-up positional clues to locate objects in 3D space from a single image, in this paper, we explore the position modeling from the image feature column and propose a new method named You Only Look Bottum-Up (YOLOBU). Specifically, our YOLOBU leverages Column-based Cross Attention to determine how much a pixel contributes to pixels above it. Next, the Row-based Reverse Cumulative Sum (RRCS) is introduced to build the connections of pixels in the bottom-up direction. Our YOLOBU fully explores the position clues for monocular 3D detection via building the relationship of pixels from the bottom-up way. Extensive experiments on the KITTI dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our method.
* Accepted by IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L)
The extensive adoption of Self-supervised learning (SSL) has led to an increased security threat from backdoor attacks. While existing research has mainly focused on backdoor attacks in image classification, there has been limited exploration into their implications for object detection. In this work, we propose the first backdoor attack designed for object detection tasks in SSL scenarios, termed Object Transform Attack (SSL-OTA). SSL-OTA employs a trigger capable of altering predictions of the target object to the desired category, encompassing two attacks: Data Poisoning Attack (NA) and Dual-Source Blending Attack (DSBA). NA conducts data poisoning during downstream fine-tuning of the object detector, while DSBA additionally injects backdoors into the pre-trained encoder. We establish appropriate metrics and conduct extensive experiments on benchmark datasets, demonstrating the effectiveness and utility of our proposed attack. Notably, both NA and DSBA achieve high attack success rates (ASR) at extremely low poisoning rates (0.5%). The results underscore the importance of considering backdoor threats in SSL-based object detection and contribute a novel perspective to the field.
In existing Video Frame Interpolation (VFI) approaches, the motion estimation between neighboring frames plays a crucial role. However, the estimation accuracy in existing methods remains a challenge, primarily due to the inherent ambiguity in identifying corresponding areas in adjacent frames for interpolation. Therefore, enhancing accuracy by distinguishing different regions before motion estimation is of utmost importance. In this paper, we introduce a novel solution involving the utilization of open-world segmentation models, e.g., SAM (Segment Anything Model), to derive Region-Distinguishable Priors (RDPs) in different frames. These RDPs are represented as spatial-varying Gaussian mixtures, distinguishing an arbitrary number of areas with a unified modality. RDPs can be integrated into existing motion-based VFI methods to enhance features for motion estimation, facilitated by our designed play-and-plug Hierarchical Region-aware Feature Fusion Module (HRFFM). HRFFM incorporates RDP into various hierarchical stages of VFI's encoder, using RDP-guided Feature Normalization (RDPFN) in a residual learning manner. With HRFFM and RDP, the features within VFI's encoder exhibit similar representations for matched regions in neighboring frames, thus improving the synthesis of intermediate frames. Extensive experiments demonstrate that HRFFM consistently enhances VFI performance across various scenes.
Low-Light Enhancement (LLE) is aimed at improving the quality of photos/videos captured under low-light conditions. It is worth noting that most existing LLE methods do not take advantage of geometric modeling. We believe that incorporating geometric information can enhance LLE performance, as it provides insights into the physical structure of the scene that influences illumination conditions. To address this, we propose a Geometry-Guided Low-Light Enhancement Refine Framework (GG-LLERF) designed to assist low-light enhancement models in learning improved features for LLE by integrating geometric priors into the feature representation space. In this paper, we employ depth priors as the geometric representation. Our approach focuses on the integration of depth priors into various LLE frameworks using a unified methodology. This methodology comprises two key novel modules. First, a depth-aware feature extraction module is designed to inject depth priors into the image representation. Then, Hierarchical Depth-Guided Feature Fusion Module (HDGFFM) is formulated with a cross-domain attention mechanism, which combines depth-aware features with the original image features within the LLE model. We conducted extensive experiments on public low-light image and video enhancement benchmarks. The results illustrate that our designed framework significantly enhances existing LLE methods.
Scene flow estimation, which aims to predict per-point 3D displacements of dynamic scenes, is a fundamental task in the computer vision field. However, previous works commonly suffer from unreliable correlation caused by locally constrained searching ranges, and struggle with accumulated inaccuracy arising from the coarse-to-fine structure. To alleviate these problems, we propose a novel uncertainty-aware scene flow estimation network (DifFlow3D) with the diffusion probabilistic model. Iterative diffusion-based refinement is designed to enhance the correlation robustness and resilience to challenging cases, e.g., dynamics, noisy inputs, repetitive patterns, etc. To restrain the generation diversity, three key flow-related features are leveraged as conditions in our diffusion model. Furthermore, we also develop an uncertainty estimation module within diffusion to evaluate the reliability of estimated scene flow. Our DifFlow3D achieves state-of-the-art performance, with 6.7\% and 19.1\% EPE3D reduction respectively on FlyingThings3D and KITTI 2015 datasets. Notably, our method achieves an unprecedented millimeter-level accuracy (0.0089m in EPE3D) on the KITTI dataset. Additionally, our diffusion-based refinement paradigm can be readily integrated as a plug-and-play module into existing scene flow networks, significantly increasing their estimation accuracy. Codes will be released later.
Language models (LMs) have been commonly adopted to boost the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) particularly in domain adaptation tasks. Conventional way of LM training treats all the words in corpora equally, resulting in suboptimal improvements in ASR performance. In this work, we introduce a novel correction focused LM training approach which aims to prioritize ASR fallible words. The word-level ASR fallibility score, representing the likelihood of ASR mis-recognition, is defined and shaped as a prior word distribution to guide the LM training. To enable correction focused training with text-only corpora, large language models (LLMs) are employed as fallibility score predictors and text generators through multi-task fine-tuning. Experimental results for domain adaptation tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. Compared with conventional LMs, correction focused training achieves up to relatively 5.5% word error rate (WER) reduction in sufficient text scenarios. In insufficient text scenarios, LM training with LLM-generated text achieves up to relatively 13% WER reduction, while correction focused training further obtains up to relatively 6% WER reduction.
Within the realm of computer vision, self-supervised learning (SSL) pertains to training pre-trained image encoders utilizing a substantial quantity of unlabeled images. Pre-trained image encoders can serve as feature extractors, facilitating the construction of downstream classifiers for various tasks. However, the use of SSL has led to an increase in security research related to various backdoor attacks. Currently, the trigger patterns used in backdoor attacks on SSL are mostly visible or static (sample-agnostic), making backdoors less covert and significantly affecting the attack performance. In this work, we propose GhostEncoder, the first dynamic invisible backdoor attack on SSL. Unlike existing backdoor attacks on SSL, which use visible or static trigger patterns, GhostEncoder utilizes image steganography techniques to encode hidden information into benign images and generate backdoor samples. We then fine-tune the pre-trained image encoder on a manipulation dataset to inject the backdoor, enabling downstream classifiers built upon the backdoored encoder to inherit the backdoor behavior for target downstream tasks. We evaluate GhostEncoder on three downstream tasks and results demonstrate that GhostEncoder provides practical stealthiness on images and deceives the victim model with a high attack success rate without compromising its utility. Furthermore, GhostEncoder withstands state-of-the-art defenses, including STRIP, STRIP-Cl, and SSL-Cleanse.
Recent research has shown that language models have a tendency to memorize rare or unique token sequences in the training corpus. After deploying a model, practitioners might be asked to delete any personal information from the model by individuals' requests. Re-training the underlying model every time individuals would like to practice their rights to be forgotten is computationally expensive. We employ a teacher-student framework and propose a novel leave-one-out ensemble method to unlearn the targeted textual sequences that need to be forgotten from the model. In our approach, multiple teachers are trained on disjoint sets; for each targeted sequence to be removed, we exclude the teacher trained on the set containing this sequence and aggregate the predictions from remaining teachers to provide supervision during fine-tuning. Experiments on LibriSpeech and WikiText-103 datasets show that the proposed method achieves superior privacy-utility trade-offs than other counterparts.
Model adaptation is crucial to handle the discrepancy between proxy training data and actual users data received. To effectively perform adaptation, textual data of users is typically stored on servers or their local devices, where downstream natural language processing (NLP) models can be directly trained using such in-domain data. However, this might raise privacy and security concerns due to the extra risks of exposing user information to adversaries. Replacing identifying information in textual data with a generic marker has been recently explored. In this work, we leverage large language models (LLMs) to suggest substitutes of masked tokens and have their effectiveness evaluated on downstream language modeling tasks. Specifically, we propose multiple pre-trained and fine-tuned LLM-based approaches and perform empirical studies on various datasets for the comparison of these methods. Experimental results show that models trained on the obfuscation corpora are able to achieve comparable performance with the ones trained on the original data without privacy-preserving token masking.
This paper studies contextual biasing with Large Language Models (LLMs), where during second-pass rescoring additional contextual information is provided to a LLM to boost Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) performance. We propose to leverage prompts for a LLM without fine tuning during rescoring which incorporate a biasing list and few-shot examples to serve as additional information when calculating the score for the hypothesis. In addition to few-shot prompt learning, we propose multi-task training of the LLM to predict both the entity class and the next token. To improve the efficiency for contextual biasing and to avoid exceeding LLMs' maximum sequence lengths, we propose dynamic prompting, where we select the most likely class using the class tag prediction, and only use entities in this class as contexts for next token prediction. Word Error Rate (WER) evaluation is performed on i) an internal calling, messaging, and dictation dataset, and ii) the SLUE-Voxpopuli dataset. Results indicate that biasing lists and few-shot examples can achieve 17.8% and 9.6% relative improvement compared to first pass ASR, and that multi-task training and dynamic prompting can achieve 20.0% and 11.3% relative WER improvement, respectively.