The amygdala plays a vital role in emotional processing and exhibits structural diversity that necessitates fine-scale parcellation for a comprehensive understanding of its anatomico-functional correlations. Diffusion MRI tractography is an advanced imaging technique that can estimate the brain's white matter structural connectivity to potentially reveal the topography of the amygdala for studying its subdivisions. In this work, we present a deep clustering pipeline to perform automated, fine-scale parcellation of the amygdala using diffusion MRI tractography. First, we incorporate a newly proposed deep learning approach to enable accurate segmentation of the amygdala directly on the dMRI data. Next, we design a novel streamline clustering-based structural connectivity feature for a robust representation of voxels within the amygdala. Finally, we improve the popular joint dimensionality reduction and k-means clustering approach to enable amygdala parcellation at a finer scale. With the proposed method, we obtain nine unique amygdala parcels. Experiments show that these parcels can be consistently identified across subjects and have good correspondence to the widely used coarse-scale amygdala parcellation.
On 3D imaging, light field cameras typically are of single shot, and however, they heavily suffer from low spatial resolution and depth accuracy. In this paper, by employing an optical projector to project a group of single high-frequency phase-shifted sinusoid patterns, we propose a phase guided light field algorithm to significantly improve both the spatial and depth resolutions for off-the-shelf light field cameras. First, for correcting the axial aberrations caused by the main lens of our light field camera, we propose a deformed cone model to calibrate our structured light field system. Second, over wrapped phases computed from patterned images, we propose a stereo matching algorithm, i.e. phase guided sum of absolute difference, to robustly obtain the correspondence for each pair of neighbored two lenslets. Finally, by introducing a virtual camera according to the basic geometrical optics of light field imaging, we propose a reorganization strategy to reconstruct 3D point clouds with spatial-depth high resolution. Experimental results show that, compared with the state-of-the-art active light field methods, the proposed reconstructs 3D point clouds with a spatial resolution of 1280$\times$720 with factors 10$\times$ increased, while maintaining the same high depth resolution and needing merely a single group of high-frequency patterns.
Federated multi-view clustering has the potential to learn a global clustering model from data distributed across multiple devices. In this setting, label information is unknown and data privacy must be preserved, leading to two major challenges. First, views on different clients often have feature heterogeneity, and mining their complementary cluster information is not trivial. Second, the storage and usage of data from multiple clients in a distributed environment can lead to incompleteness of multi-view data. To address these challenges, we propose a novel federated deep multi-view clustering method that can mine complementary cluster structures from multiple clients, while dealing with data incompleteness and privacy concerns. Specifically, in the server environment, we propose sample alignment and data extension techniques to explore the complementary cluster structures of multiple views. The server then distributes global prototypes and global pseudo-labels to each client as global self-supervised information. In the client environment, multiple clients use the global self-supervised information and deep autoencoders to learn view-specific cluster assignments and embedded features, which are then uploaded to the server for refining the global self-supervised information. Finally, the results of our extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method exhibits superior performance in addressing the challenges of incomplete multi-view data in distributed environments.
Multitask learning (MTL) leverages task-relatedness to enhance performance. With the emergence of multimodal data, tasks can now be referenced by multiple indices. In this paper, we employ high-order tensors, with each mode corresponding to a task index, to naturally represent tasks referenced by multiple indices and preserve their structural relations. Based on this representation, we propose a general framework of low-rank MTL methods with tensorized support vector machines (SVMs) and least square support vector machines (LSSVMs), where the CP factorization is deployed over the coefficient tensor. Our approach allows to model the task relation through a linear combination of shared factors weighted by task-specific factors and is generalized to both classification and regression problems. Through the alternating optimization scheme and the Lagrangian function, each subproblem is transformed into a convex problem, formulated as a quadratic programming or linear system in the dual form. In contrast to previous MTL frameworks, our decision function in the dual induces a weighted kernel function with a task-coupling term characterized by the similarities of the task-specific factors, better revealing the explicit relations across tasks in MTL. Experimental results validate the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed methods compared to existing state-of-the-art approaches in MTL. The code of implementation will be available at https://github.com/liujiani0216/TSVM-MTL.
Regression analysis is a key area of interest in the field of data analysis and machine learning which is devoted to exploring the dependencies between variables, often using vectors. The emergence of high dimensional data in technologies such as neuroimaging, computer vision, climatology and social networks, has brought challenges to traditional data representation methods. Tensors, as high dimensional extensions of vectors, are considered as natural representations of high dimensional data. In this book, the authors provide a systematic study and analysis of tensor-based regression models and their applications in recent years. It groups and illustrates the existing tensor-based regression methods and covers the basics, core ideas, and theoretical characteristics of most tensor-based regression methods. In addition, readers can learn how to use existing tensor-based regression methods to solve specific regression tasks with multiway data, what datasets can be selected, and what software packages are available to start related work as soon as possible. Tensor Regression is the first thorough overview of the fundamentals, motivations, popular algorithms, strategies for efficient implementation, related applications, available datasets, and software resources for tensor-based regression analysis. It is essential reading for all students, researchers and practitioners of working on high dimensional data.
Transformer-based methods have exhibited remarkable potential in single image super-resolution (SISR) by effectively extracting long-range dependencies. However, most of the current research in this area has prioritized the design of transformer blocks to capture global information, while overlooking the importance of incorporating high-frequency priors, which we believe could be beneficial. In our study, we conducted a series of experiments and found that transformer structures are more adept at capturing low-frequency information, but have limited capacity in constructing high-frequency representations when compared to their convolutional counterparts. Our proposed solution, the cross-refinement adaptive feature modulation transformer (CRAFT), integrates the strengths of both convolutional and transformer structures. It comprises three key components: the high-frequency enhancement residual block (HFERB) for extracting high-frequency information, the shift rectangle window attention block (SRWAB) for capturing global information, and the hybrid fusion block (HFB) for refining the global representation. Our experiments on multiple datasets demonstrate that CRAFT outperforms state-of-the-art methods by up to 0.29dB while using fewer parameters. The source code will be made available at: https://github.com/AVC2-UESTC/CRAFT-SR.git.
Tensor-based multi-view subspace clustering (MSC) can capture high-order correlation in the self-representation tensor. Current tensor decompositions for MSC suffer from highly unbalanced unfolding matrices or rotation sensitivity, failing to fully explore inter/intra-view information. Using the advanced tensor network, namely, multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), we propose a low-rank MERA based MSC (MERA-MSC) algorithm, where MERA factorizes a tensor into contractions of one top core factor and the rest orthogonal/semi-orthogonal factors. Benefiting from multiple interactions among orthogonal/semi-orthogonal (low-rank) factors, the low-rank MERA has a strong representation power to capture the complex inter/intra-view information in the self-representation tensor. The alternating direction method of multipliers is adopted to solve the optimization model. Experimental results on five multi-view datasets demonstrate MERA-MSC has superiority against the compared algorithms on six evaluation metrics. Furthermore, we extend MERA-MSC by incorporating anchor learning to develop a scalable low-rank MERA based multi-view clustering method (sMREA-MVC). The effectiveness and efficiency of sMERA-MVC have been validated on three large-scale multi-view datasets. To our knowledge, this is the first work to introduce MERA to the multi-view clustering topic. The codes of MERA-MSC and sMERA-MVC are publicly available at https://github.com/longzhen520/MERA-MSC.
Binary feature descriptors have been widely used in various visual measurement tasks, particularly those with limited computing resources and storage capacities. Existing binary descriptors may not perform well for long-term visual measurement tasks due to their sensitivity to illumination variations. It can be observed that when image illumination changes dramatically, the relative relationship among local patches mostly remains intact. Based on the observation, consequently, this study presents an illumination-insensitive binary (IIB) descriptor by leveraging the local inter-patch invariance exhibited in multiple spatial granularities to deal with unfavorable illumination variations. By taking advantage of integral images for local patch feature computation, a highly efficient IIB descriptor is achieved. It can encode scalable features in multiple spatial granularities, thus facilitating a computationally efficient hierarchical matching from coarse to fine. Moreover, the IIB descriptor can also apply to other types of image data, such as depth maps and semantic segmentation results, when available in some applications. Numerical experiments on both natural and synthetic datasets reveal that the proposed IIB descriptor outperforms state-of-the-art binary descriptors and some testing float descriptors. The proposed IIB descriptor has also been successfully employed in a demo system for long-term visual localization. The code of the IIB descriptor will be publicly available.
Line segment detection plays a cornerstone role in computer vision tasks. Among numerous detection methods that have been recently proposed, the ones based on edge drawing attract increasing attention owing to their excellent detection efficiency. However, the existing methods are not robust enough due to the inadequate usage of image gradients for edge drawing and line segment fitting. Based on the observation that the line segments should locate on the edge points with both consistent coordinates and level-line information, i.e., the unit vector perpendicular to the gradient orientation, this paper proposes a level-line guided edge drawing for robust line segment detection (GEDRLSD). The level-line information provides potential directions for edge tracking, which could be served as a guideline for accurate edge drawing. Additionally, the level-line information is fused in line segment fitting to improve the robustness. Numerical experiments show the superiority of the proposed GEDRLSD algorithm compared with state-of-the-art methods.