Recently, the advent of Large Visual-Language Models (LVLMs) has received increasing attention across various domains, particularly in the field of visual document understanding (VDU). Different from conventional vision-language tasks, VDU is specifically concerned with text-rich scenarios containing abundant document elements. Nevertheless, the importance of fine-grained features remains largely unexplored within the community of LVLMs, leading to suboptimal performance in text-rich scenarios. In this paper, we abbreviate it as the fine-grained feature collapse issue. With the aim of filling this gap, we propose a contrastive learning framework, termed Document Object COntrastive learning (DoCo), specifically tailored for the downstream tasks of VDU. DoCo leverages an auxiliary multimodal encoder to obtain the features of document objects and align them to the visual features generated by the vision encoder of LVLM, which enhances visual representation in text-rich scenarios. It can represent that the contrastive learning between the visual holistic representations and the multimodal fine-grained features of document objects can assist the vision encoder in acquiring more effective visual cues, thereby enhancing the comprehension of text-rich documents in LVLMs. We also demonstrate that the proposed DoCo serves as a plug-and-play pre-training method, which can be employed in the pre-training of various LVLMs without inducing any increase in computational complexity during the inference process. Extensive experimental results on multiple benchmarks of VDU reveal that LVLMs equipped with our proposed DoCo can achieve superior performance and mitigate the gap between VDU and generic vision-language tasks.
Knowledge distillation (KD) has been widely adopted to compress large language models (LLMs). Existing KD methods investigate various divergence measures including the Kullback-Leibler (KL), reverse Kullback-Leibler (RKL), and Jensen-Shannon (JS) divergences. However, due to limitations inherent in their assumptions and definitions, these measures fail to deliver effective supervision when few distribution overlap exists between the teacher and the student. In this paper, we show that the aforementioned KL, RKL, and JS divergences respectively suffer from issues of mode-averaging, mode-collapsing, and mode-underestimation, which deteriorates logits-based KD for diverse NLP tasks. We propose the Sinkhorn Knowledge Distillation (SinKD) that exploits the Sinkhorn distance to ensure a nuanced and precise assessment of the disparity between teacher and student distributions. Besides, profit by properties of the Sinkhorn metric, we can get rid of sample-wise KD that restricts the perception of divergence in each teacher-student sample pair. Instead, we propose a batch-wise reformulation to capture geometric intricacies of distributions across samples in the high-dimensional space. Comprehensive evaluation on GLUE and SuperGLUE, in terms of comparability, validity, and generalizability, highlights our superiority over state-of-the-art methods on all kinds of LLMs with encoder-only, encoder-decoder, and decoder-only architectures.
In the quest to facilitate the deep intelligence of Large Language Models (LLMs) accessible in final-end user-bot interactions, the art of prompt crafting emerges as a critical yet complex task for the average user. Contrast to previous model-oriented yet instruction-agnostic Automatic Prompt Optimization methodologies, yielding polished results for predefined target models while suffering rapid degradation with out-of-box models, we present Free-form Instruction-oriented Prompt Optimization (FIPO). This approach is supported by our large-scale prompt preference dataset and employs a modular fine-tuning schema. The FIPO schema reimagines the optimization process into manageable modules, anchored by a meta prompt that dynamically adapts content. This allows for the flexible integration of the raw task instruction, the optional instruction response, and the optional ground truth to produce finely optimized task prompts. The FIPO preference dataset is meticulously constructed using the optimal and suboptimal LLMs, undergoing rigorous cross-verification by human experts and analytical models. Applying the insights from the data with Tulu2 models and fine-tuning strategies, we validate the efficacy of FIPO schema across five public benchmarks. Codes, data and scripts are here: https://github.com/LuJunru/FIPO_Project.
The surge of interest towards Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs), e.g., GPT-4V(ision) from OpenAI, has marked a significant trend in both academia and industry. They endow Large Language Models (LLMs) with powerful capabilities in visual understanding, enabling them to tackle diverse multi-modal tasks. Very recently, Google released Gemini, its newest and most capable MLLM built from the ground up for multi-modality. In light of the superior reasoning capabilities, can Gemini challenge GPT-4V's leading position in multi-modal learning? In this paper, we present a preliminary exploration of Gemini Pro's visual understanding proficiency, which comprehensively covers four domains: fundamental perception, advanced cognition, challenging vision tasks, and various expert capacities. We compare Gemini Pro with the state-of-the-art GPT-4V to evaluate its upper limits, along with the latest open-sourced MLLM, Sphinx, which reveals the gap between manual efforts and black-box systems. The qualitative samples indicate that, while GPT-4V and Gemini showcase different answering styles and preferences, they can exhibit comparable visual reasoning capabilities, and Sphinx still trails behind them concerning domain generalizability. Specifically, GPT-4V tends to elaborate detailed explanations and intermediate steps, and Gemini prefers to output a direct and concise answer. The quantitative evaluation on the popular MME benchmark also demonstrates the potential of Gemini to be a strong challenger to GPT-4V. Our early investigation of Gemini also observes some common issues of MLLMs, indicating that there still remains a considerable distance towards artificial general intelligence. Our project for tracking the progress of MLLM is released at https://github.com/BradyFU/Awesome-Multimodal-Large-Language-Models.
Symmetric positive definite~(SPD) matrices have shown important value and applications in statistics and machine learning, such as FMRI analysis and traffic prediction. Previous works on SPD matrices mostly focus on discriminative models, where predictions are made directly on $E(X|y)$, where $y$ is a vector and $X$ is an SPD matrix. However, these methods are challenging to handle for large-scale data, as they need to access and process the whole data. In this paper, inspired by denoising diffusion probabilistic model~(DDPM), we propose a novel generative model, termed SPD-DDPM, by introducing Gaussian distribution in the SPD space to estimate $E(X|y)$. Moreover, our model is able to estimate $p(X)$ unconditionally and flexibly without giving $y$. On the one hand, the model conditionally learns $p(X|y)$ and utilizes the mean of samples to obtain $E(X|y)$ as a prediction. On the other hand, the model unconditionally learns the probability distribution of the data $p(X)$ and generates samples that conform to this distribution. Furthermore, we propose a new SPD net which is much deeper than the previous networks and allows for the inclusion of conditional factors. Experiment results on toy data and real taxi data demonstrate that our models effectively fit the data distribution both unconditionally and unconditionally and provide accurate predictions.
Although In-Context Learning (ICL) brings remarkable performance gains to Large Language Models (LLMs), the improvements remain lower than fine-tuning on downstream tasks. This paper introduces Multi-Modal In-Context Tuning (MMICT), a novel multi-modal fine-tuning paradigm that boosts multi-modal fine-tuning by fully leveraging the promising ICL capability of multi-modal LLMs (MM-LLMs). We propose the Multi-Modal Hub (M-Hub), a unified module that captures various multi-modal features according to different inputs and objectives. Based on M-Hub, MMICT enables MM-LLMs to learn from in-context visual-guided textual features and subsequently generate outputs conditioned on the textual-guided visual features. Moreover, leveraging the flexibility of M-Hub, we design a variety of in-context demonstrations. Extensive experiments on a diverse range of downstream multi-modal tasks demonstrate that MMICT significantly outperforms traditional fine-tuning strategy and the vanilla ICT method that directly takes the concatenation of all information from different modalities as input.
Vision foundation models have been explored recently to build general-purpose vision systems. However, predominant paradigms, driven by casting instance-level tasks as an object-word alignment, bring heavy cross-modality interaction, which is not effective in prompting object detection and visual grounding. Another line of work that focuses on pixel-level tasks often encounters a large annotation gap of things and stuff, and suffers from mutual interference between foreground-object and background-class segmentation. In stark contrast to the prevailing methods, we present APE, a universal visual perception model for aligning and prompting everything all at once in an image to perform diverse tasks, i.e., detection, segmentation, and grounding, as an instance-level sentence-object matching paradigm. Specifically, APE advances the convergence of detection and grounding by reformulating language-guided grounding as open-vocabulary detection, which efficiently scales up model prompting to thousands of category vocabularies and region descriptions while maintaining the effectiveness of cross-modality fusion. To bridge the granularity gap of different pixel-level tasks, APE equalizes semantic and panoptic segmentation to proxy instance learning by considering any isolated regions as individual instances. APE aligns vision and language representation on broad data with natural and challenging characteristics all at once without task-specific fine-tuning. The extensive experiments on over 160 datasets demonstrate that, with only one-suit of weights, APE outperforms (or is on par with) the state-of-the-art models, proving that an effective yet universal perception for anything aligning and prompting is indeed feasible. Codes and trained models are released at https://github.com/shenyunhang/APE.
Retrieval augmentation has become an effective solution to empower large language models (LLMs) with external and verified knowledge sources from the database, which overcomes the limitations and hallucinations of LLMs in handling up-to-date and domain-specific information. However, existing embedding models for text retrieval usually have three non-negligible limitations. First, the number and diversity of samples in a batch are too restricted to supervise the modeling of textual nuances at scale. Second, the high proportional noise are detrimental to the semantic correctness and consistency of embeddings. Third, the equal treatment to easy and difficult samples would cause sub-optimum convergence of embeddings with poorer generalization. In this paper, we propose the PEG, a progressively learned embeddings for robust text retrieval. Specifically, we increase the training in-batch negative samples to 80,000, and for each query, we extracted five hard negatives. Concurrently, we incorporated a progressive learning mechanism, enabling the model to dynamically modulate its attention to the samples throughout the entire training process. Additionally, PEG is trained on more than 100 million data, encompassing a wide range of domains (e.g., finance, medicine, and tourism) and covering various tasks (e.g., question-answering, machine reading comprehension, and similarity matching). Extensive experiments conducted on C-MTEB and DuReader demonstrate that PEG surpasses state-of-the-art embeddings in retrieving true positives, highlighting its significant potential for applications in LLMs. Our model is publicly available at https://huggingface.co/TownsWu/PEG.
Hallucination is a big shadow hanging over the rapidly evolving Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs), referring to the phenomenon that the generated text is inconsistent with the image content. In order to mitigate hallucinations, existing studies mainly resort to an instruction-tuning manner that requires retraining the models with specific data. In this paper, we pave a different way, introducing a training-free method named Woodpecker. Like a woodpecker heals trees, it picks out and corrects hallucinations from the generated text. Concretely, Woodpecker consists of five stages: key concept extraction, question formulation, visual knowledge validation, visual claim generation, and hallucination correction. Implemented in a post-remedy manner, Woodpecker can easily serve different MLLMs, while being interpretable by accessing intermediate outputs of the five stages. We evaluate Woodpecker both quantitatively and qualitatively and show the huge potential of this new paradigm. On the POPE benchmark, our method obtains a 30.66%/24.33% improvement in accuracy over the baseline MiniGPT-4/mPLUG-Owl. The source code is released at https://github.com/BradyFU/Woodpecker.
Webly supervised learning has attracted increasing attention for its effectiveness in exploring publicly accessible data at scale without manual annotation. However, most existing methods of learning with web datasets are faced with challenges from label noise, and they have limited assumptions on clean samples under various noise. For instance, web images retrieved with queries of tiger cat (a cat species) and drumstick (a musical instrument) are almost dominated by images of tigers and chickens, which exacerbates the challenge of fine-grained visual concept learning. In this case, exploiting both web images and their associated texts is a requisite solution to combat real-world noise. In this paper, we propose Cross-modality Aligned Prototypes (CAPro), a unified prototypical contrastive learning framework to learn visual representations with correct semantics. For one thing, we leverage textual prototypes, which stem from the distinct concept definition of classes, to select clean images by text matching and thus disambiguate the formation of visual prototypes. For another, to handle missing and mismatched noisy texts, we resort to the visual feature space to complete and enhance individual texts and thereafter improve text matching. Such semantically aligned visual prototypes are further polished up with high-quality samples, and engaged in both cluster regularization and noise removal. Besides, we propose collective bootstrapping to encourage smoother and wiser label reference from appearance-similar instances in a manner of dictionary look-up. Extensive experiments on WebVision1k and NUS-WIDE (Web) demonstrate that CAPro well handles realistic noise under both single-label and multi-label scenarios. CAPro achieves new state-of-the-art performance and exhibits robustness to open-set recognition. Codes are available at https://github.com/yuleiqin/capro.