The surge of interest towards Multi-modal Large Language Models (MLLMs), e.g., GPT-4V(ision) from OpenAI, has marked a significant trend in both academia and industry. They endow Large Language Models (LLMs) with powerful capabilities in visual understanding, enabling them to tackle diverse multi-modal tasks. Very recently, Google released Gemini, its newest and most capable MLLM built from the ground up for multi-modality. In light of the superior reasoning capabilities, can Gemini challenge GPT-4V's leading position in multi-modal learning? In this paper, we present a preliminary exploration of Gemini Pro's visual understanding proficiency, which comprehensively covers four domains: fundamental perception, advanced cognition, challenging vision tasks, and various expert capacities. We compare Gemini Pro with the state-of-the-art GPT-4V to evaluate its upper limits, along with the latest open-sourced MLLM, Sphinx, which reveals the gap between manual efforts and black-box systems. The qualitative samples indicate that, while GPT-4V and Gemini showcase different answering styles and preferences, they can exhibit comparable visual reasoning capabilities, and Sphinx still trails behind them concerning domain generalizability. Specifically, GPT-4V tends to elaborate detailed explanations and intermediate steps, and Gemini prefers to output a direct and concise answer. The quantitative evaluation on the popular MME benchmark also demonstrates the potential of Gemini to be a strong challenger to GPT-4V. Our early investigation of Gemini also observes some common issues of MLLMs, indicating that there still remains a considerable distance towards artificial general intelligence. Our project for tracking the progress of MLLM is released at https://github.com/BradyFU/Awesome-Multimodal-Large-Language-Models.
Vision foundation models have been explored recently to build general-purpose vision systems. However, predominant paradigms, driven by casting instance-level tasks as an object-word alignment, bring heavy cross-modality interaction, which is not effective in prompting object detection and visual grounding. Another line of work that focuses on pixel-level tasks often encounters a large annotation gap of things and stuff, and suffers from mutual interference between foreground-object and background-class segmentation. In stark contrast to the prevailing methods, we present APE, a universal visual perception model for aligning and prompting everything all at once in an image to perform diverse tasks, i.e., detection, segmentation, and grounding, as an instance-level sentence-object matching paradigm. Specifically, APE advances the convergence of detection and grounding by reformulating language-guided grounding as open-vocabulary detection, which efficiently scales up model prompting to thousands of category vocabularies and region descriptions while maintaining the effectiveness of cross-modality fusion. To bridge the granularity gap of different pixel-level tasks, APE equalizes semantic and panoptic segmentation to proxy instance learning by considering any isolated regions as individual instances. APE aligns vision and language representation on broad data with natural and challenging characteristics all at once without task-specific fine-tuning. The extensive experiments on over 160 datasets demonstrate that, with only one-suit of weights, APE outperforms (or is on par with) the state-of-the-art models, proving that an effective yet universal perception for anything aligning and prompting is indeed feasible. Codes and trained models are released at https://github.com/shenyunhang/APE.
As the capabilities of Large-Language Models (LLMs) become widely recognized, there is an increasing demand for human-machine chat applications. Human interaction with text often inherently invokes mental imagery, an aspect that existing LLM-based chatbots like GPT-4 do not currently emulate, as they are confined to generating text-only content. To bridge this gap, we introduce ChatIllusion, an advanced Generative multimodal large language model (MLLM) that combines the capabilities of LLM with not only visual comprehension but also creativity. Specifically, ChatIllusion integrates Stable Diffusion XL and Llama, which have been fine-tuned on modest image-caption data, to facilitate multiple rounds of illustrated chats. The central component of ChatIllusion is the "GenAdapter," an efficient approach that equips the multimodal language model with capabilities for visual representation, without necessitating modifications to the foundational model. Extensive experiments validate the efficacy of our approach, showcasing its ability to produce diverse and superior-quality image outputs Simultaneously, it preserves semantic consistency and control over the dialogue, significantly enhancing the overall user's quality of experience (QoE). The code is available at https://github.com/litwellchi/ChatIllusion.
Hallucination is a big shadow hanging over the rapidly evolving Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs), referring to the phenomenon that the generated text is inconsistent with the image content. In order to mitigate hallucinations, existing studies mainly resort to an instruction-tuning manner that requires retraining the models with specific data. In this paper, we pave a different way, introducing a training-free method named Woodpecker. Like a woodpecker heals trees, it picks out and corrects hallucinations from the generated text. Concretely, Woodpecker consists of five stages: key concept extraction, question formulation, visual knowledge validation, visual claim generation, and hallucination correction. Implemented in a post-remedy manner, Woodpecker can easily serve different MLLMs, while being interpretable by accessing intermediate outputs of the five stages. We evaluate Woodpecker both quantitatively and qualitatively and show the huge potential of this new paradigm. On the POPE benchmark, our method obtains a 30.66%/24.33% improvement in accuracy over the baseline MiniGPT-4/mPLUG-Owl. The source code is released at https://github.com/BradyFU/Woodpecker.
Webly supervised learning has attracted increasing attention for its effectiveness in exploring publicly accessible data at scale without manual annotation. However, most existing methods of learning with web datasets are faced with challenges from label noise, and they have limited assumptions on clean samples under various noise. For instance, web images retrieved with queries of tiger cat (a cat species) and drumstick (a musical instrument) are almost dominated by images of tigers and chickens, which exacerbates the challenge of fine-grained visual concept learning. In this case, exploiting both web images and their associated texts is a requisite solution to combat real-world noise. In this paper, we propose Cross-modality Aligned Prototypes (CAPro), a unified prototypical contrastive learning framework to learn visual representations with correct semantics. For one thing, we leverage textual prototypes, which stem from the distinct concept definition of classes, to select clean images by text matching and thus disambiguate the formation of visual prototypes. For another, to handle missing and mismatched noisy texts, we resort to the visual feature space to complete and enhance individual texts and thereafter improve text matching. Such semantically aligned visual prototypes are further polished up with high-quality samples, and engaged in both cluster regularization and noise removal. Besides, we propose collective bootstrapping to encourage smoother and wiser label reference from appearance-similar instances in a manner of dictionary look-up. Extensive experiments on WebVision1k and NUS-WIDE (Web) demonstrate that CAPro well handles realistic noise under both single-label and multi-label scenarios. CAPro achieves new state-of-the-art performance and exhibits robustness to open-set recognition. Codes are available at https://github.com/yuleiqin/capro.
Existing automated dubbing methods are usually designed for Professionally Generated Content (PGC) production, which requires massive training data and training time to learn a person-specific audio-video mapping. In this paper, we investigate an audio-driven dubbing method that is more feasible for User Generated Content (UGC) production. There are two unique challenges to design a method for UGC: 1) the appearances of speakers are diverse and arbitrary as the method needs to generalize across users; 2) the available video data of one speaker are very limited. In order to tackle the above challenges, we first introduce a new Style Translation Network to integrate the speaking style of the target and the speaking content of the source via a cross-modal AdaIN module. It enables our model to quickly adapt to a new speaker. Then, we further develop a semi-parametric video renderer, which takes full advantage of the limited training data of the unseen speaker via a video-level retrieve-warp-refine pipeline. Finally, we propose a temporal regularization for the semi-parametric renderer, generating more continuous videos. Extensive experiments show that our method generates videos that accurately preserve various speaking styles, yet with considerably lower amount of training data and training time in comparison to existing methods. Besides, our method achieves a faster testing speed than most recent methods.
* IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
(Volume: 33, Issue: 3, March 2023) * TCSVT 2022
Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM) relies on the powerful LLM to perform multimodal tasks, showing amazing emergent abilities in recent studies, such as writing poems based on an image. However, it is difficult for these case studies to fully reflect the performance of MLLM, lacking a comprehensive evaluation. In this paper, we fill in this blank, presenting the first MLLM Evaluation benchmark MME. It measures both perception and cognition abilities on a total of 14 subtasks. In order to avoid data leakage that may arise from direct use of public datasets for evaluation, the annotations of instruction-answer pairs are all manually designed. The concise instruction design allows us to fairly compare MLLMs, instead of struggling in prompt engineering. Besides, with such an instruction, we can also easily carry out quantitative statistics. A total of 12 advanced MLLMs are comprehensively evaluated on our MME, which not only suggests that existing MLLMs still have a large room for improvement, but also reveals the potential directions for the subsequent model optimization.
Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM) recently has been a new rising research hotspot, which uses powerful Large Language Models (LLMs) as a brain to perform multimodal tasks. The surprising emergent capabilities of MLLM, such as writing stories based on images and OCR-free math reasoning, are rare in traditional methods, suggesting a potential path to artificial general intelligence. In this paper, we aim to trace and summarize the recent progress of MLLM. First of all, we present the formulation of MLLM and delineate its related concepts. Then, we discuss the key techniques and applications, including Multimodal Instruction Tuning (M-IT), Multimodal In-Context Learning (M-ICL), Multimodal Chain of Thought (M-CoT), and LLM-Aided Visual Reasoning (LAVR). Finally, we discuss existing challenges and point out promising research directions. In light of the fact that the era of MLLM has only just begun, we will keep updating this survey and hope it can inspire more research. An associated GitHub link collecting the latest papers is available at https://github.com/BradyFU/Awesome-Multimodal-Large-Language-Models.
We introduce MQ-Det, an efficient architecture and pre-training strategy design to utilize both textual description with open-set generalization and visual exemplars with rich description granularity as category queries, namely, Multi-modal Queried object Detection, for real-world detection with both open-vocabulary categories and various granularity. MQ-Det incorporates vision queries into existing well-established language-queried-only detectors. A plug-and-play gated class-scalable perceiver module upon the frozen detector is proposed to augment category text with class-wise visual information. To address the learning inertia problem brought by the frozen detector, a vision conditioned masked language prediction strategy is proposed. MQ-Det's simple yet effective architecture and training strategy design is compatible with most language-queried object detectors, thus yielding versatile applications. Experimental results demonstrate that multi-modal queries largely boost open-world detection. For instance, MQ-Det significantly improves the state-of-the-art open-set detector GLIP by +7.8% zero-shot AP on the LVIS benchmark and averagely +6.3% AP on 13 few-shot downstream tasks, with merely 3% pre-training time required by GLIP. Code is available at https://github.com/YifanXu74/MQ-Det.