There has been abundant work in unsupervised domain adaptation for semantic segmentation (DAS) seeking to adapt a model trained on images from a labeled source domain to an unlabeled target domain. While the vast majority of prior work has studied this as a frame-level Image-DAS problem, a few Video-DAS works have sought to additionally leverage the temporal signal present in adjacent frames. However, Video-DAS works have historically studied a distinct set of benchmarks from Image-DAS, with minimal cross-benchmarking. In this work, we address this gap. Surprisingly, we find that (1) even after carefully controlling for data and model architecture, state-of-the-art Image-DAS methods (HRDA and HRDA+MIC) outperform Video-DAS methods on established Video-DAS benchmarks (+14.5 mIoU on Viper$\rightarrow$CityscapesSeq, +19.0 mIoU on Synthia$\rightarrow$CityscapesSeq), and (2) naive combinations of Image-DAS and Video-DAS techniques only lead to marginal improvements across datasets. To avoid siloed progress between Image-DAS and Video-DAS, we open-source our codebase with support for a comprehensive set of Video-DAS and Image-DAS methods on a common benchmark. Code available at https://github.com/SimarKareer/UnifiedVideoDA
Synthetic data (SIM) drawn from simulators have emerged as a popular alternative for training models where acquiring annotated real-world images is difficult. However, transferring models trained on synthetic images to real-world applications can be challenging due to appearance disparities. A commonly employed solution to counter this SIM2REAL gap is unsupervised domain adaptation, where models are trained using labeled SIM data and unlabeled REAL data. Mispredictions made by such SIM2REAL adapted models are often associated with miscalibration - stemming from overconfident predictions on real data. In this paper, we introduce AUGCAL, a simple training-time patch for unsupervised adaptation that improves SIM2REAL adapted models by - (1) reducing overall miscalibration, (2) reducing overconfidence in incorrect predictions and (3) improving confidence score reliability by better guiding misclassification detection - all while retaining or improving SIM2REAL performance. Given a base SIM2REAL adaptation algorithm, at training time, AUGCAL involves replacing vanilla SIM images with strongly augmented views (AUG intervention) and additionally optimizing for a training time calibration loss on augmented SIM predictions (CAL intervention). We motivate AUGCAL using a brief analytical justification of how to reduce miscalibration on unlabeled REAL data. Through our experiments, we empirically show the efficacy of AUGCAL across multiple adaptation methods, backbones, tasks and shifts.
Real-world aerial scene understanding is limited by a lack of datasets that contain densely annotated images curated under a diverse set of conditions. Due to inherent challenges in obtaining such images in controlled real-world settings, we present SkyScenes, a synthetic dataset of densely annotated aerial images captured from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) perspectives. We carefully curate SkyScenes images from CARLA to comprehensively capture diversity across layout (urban and rural maps), weather conditions, times of day, pitch angles and altitudes with corresponding semantic, instance and depth annotations. Through our experiments using SkyScenes, we show that (1) Models trained on SkyScenes generalize well to different real-world scenarios, (2) augmenting training on real images with SkyScenes data can improve real-world performance, (3) controlled variations in SkyScenes can offer insights into how models respond to changes in viewpoint conditions, and (4) incorporating additional sensor modalities (depth) can improve aerial scene understanding.
We present Ego-Exo4D, a diverse, large-scale multimodal multiview video dataset and benchmark challenge. Ego-Exo4D centers around simultaneously-captured egocentric and exocentric video of skilled human activities (e.g., sports, music, dance, bike repair). More than 800 participants from 13 cities worldwide performed these activities in 131 different natural scene contexts, yielding long-form captures from 1 to 42 minutes each and 1,422 hours of video combined. The multimodal nature of the dataset is unprecedented: the video is accompanied by multichannel audio, eye gaze, 3D point clouds, camera poses, IMU, and multiple paired language descriptions -- including a novel "expert commentary" done by coaches and teachers and tailored to the skilled-activity domain. To push the frontier of first-person video understanding of skilled human activity, we also present a suite of benchmark tasks and their annotations, including fine-grained activity understanding, proficiency estimation, cross-view translation, and 3D hand/body pose. All resources will be open sourced to fuel new research in the community.
Neural network based computer vision systems are typically built on a backbone, a pretrained or randomly initialized feature extractor. Several years ago, the default option was an ImageNet-trained convolutional neural network. However, the recent past has seen the emergence of countless backbones pretrained using various algorithms and datasets. While this abundance of choice has led to performance increases for a range of systems, it is difficult for practitioners to make informed decisions about which backbone to choose. Battle of the Backbones (BoB) makes this choice easier by benchmarking a diverse suite of pretrained models, including vision-language models, those trained via self-supervised learning, and the Stable Diffusion backbone, across a diverse set of computer vision tasks ranging from classification to object detection to OOD generalization and more. Furthermore, BoB sheds light on promising directions for the research community to advance computer vision by illuminating strengths and weakness of existing approaches through a comprehensive analysis conducted on more than 1500 training runs. While vision transformers (ViTs) and self-supervised learning (SSL) are increasingly popular, we find that convolutional neural networks pretrained in a supervised fashion on large training sets still perform best on most tasks among the models we consider. Moreover, in apples-to-apples comparisons on the same architectures and similarly sized pretraining datasets, we find that SSL backbones are highly competitive, indicating that future works should perform SSL pretraining with advanced architectures and larger pretraining datasets. We release the raw results of our experiments along with code that allows researchers to put their own backbones through the gauntlet here: https://github.com/hsouri/Battle-of-the-Backbones
Window attention, position embeddings, and high resolution finetuning are core concepts in the modern transformer era of computer vision. However, we find that naively combining these near ubiquitous components can have a detrimental effect on performance. The issue is simple: interpolating position embeddings while using window attention is wrong. We study two state-of-the-art methods that have these three components, namely Hiera and ViTDet, and find that both do indeed suffer from this bug. To fix it, we introduce a simple absolute window position embedding strategy, which solves the bug outright in Hiera and allows us to increase both speed and performance of the model in ViTDet. We finally combine the two to obtain HieraDet, which achieves 61.7 box mAP on COCO, making it state-of-the-art for models that only use ImageNet-1k pretraining. This all stems from what is essentially a 3 line bug fix, which we name "absolute win".
* Preprint. Code release will be coming in the future
Computer vision datasets frequently contain spurious correlations between task-relevant labels and (easy to learn) latent task-irrelevant attributes (e.g. context). Models trained on such datasets learn "shortcuts" and underperform on bias-conflicting slices of data where the correlation does not hold. In this work, we study the problem of identifying such slices to inform downstream bias mitigation strategies. We propose First Amplify Correlations and Then Slice to Discover Bias (FACTS), wherein we first amplify correlations to fit a simple bias-aligned hypothesis via strongly regularized empirical risk minimization. Next, we perform correlation-aware slicing via mixture modeling in bias-aligned feature space to discover underperforming data slices that capture distinct correlations. Despite its simplicity, our method considerably improves over prior work (by as much as 35% precision@10) in correlation bias identification across a range of diverse evaluation settings. Our code is available at: https://github.com/yvsriram/FACTS.
Diffusion Models (DMs) have recently set state-of-the-art on many generation benchmarks. However, there are myriad ways to describe them mathematically, which makes it difficult to develop a simple understanding of how they work. In this survey, we provide a concise overview of DMs from the perspective of dynamical systems and Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) which exposes a mathematical connection to the highly related yet often overlooked class of energy-based models, called Associative Memories (AMs). Energy-based AMs are a theoretical framework that behave much like denoising DMs, but they enable us to directly compute a Lyapunov energy function on which we can perform gradient descent to denoise data. We then summarize the 40 year history of energy-based AMs, beginning with the original Hopfield Network, and discuss new research directions for AMs and DMs that are revealed by characterizing the extent of their similarities and differences