Scaling up contrastive language-image pretraining (CLIP) is critical for empowering both vision and multimodal models. We present EVA-CLIP-18B, the largest and most powerful open-source CLIP model to date, with 18-billion parameters. With only 6-billion training samples seen, EVA-CLIP-18B achieves an exceptional 80.7% zero-shot top-1 accuracy averaged across 27 widely recognized image classification benchmarks, outperforming its forerunner EVA-CLIP (5-billion parameters) and other open-source CLIP models by a large margin. Remarkably, we observe a consistent performance improvement with the model size scaling of EVA-CLIP, despite maintaining a constant training dataset of 2-billion image-text pairs from LAION-2B and COYO-700M. This dataset is openly available and much smaller than the in-house datasets (e.g., DFN-5B, WebLI-10B) employed in other state-of-the-art CLIP models. EVA-CLIP-18B demonstrates the potential of EVA-style weak-to-strong visual model scaling. With our model weights made publicly available, we hope to facilitate future research in vision and multimodal foundation models.
The human ability to easily solve multimodal tasks in context (i.e., with only a few demonstrations or simple instructions), is what current multimodal systems have largely struggled to imitate. In this work, we demonstrate that the task-agnostic in-context learning capabilities of large multimodal models can be significantly enhanced by effective scaling-up. We introduce Emu2, a generative multimodal model with 37 billion parameters, trained on large-scale multimodal sequences with a unified autoregressive objective. Emu2 exhibits strong multimodal in-context learning abilities, even emerging to solve tasks that require on-the-fly reasoning, such as visual prompting and object-grounded generation. The model sets a new record on multiple multimodal understanding tasks in few-shot settings. When instruction-tuned to follow specific instructions, Emu2 further achieves new state-of-the-art on challenging tasks such as question answering benchmarks for large multimodal models and open-ended subject-driven generation. These achievements demonstrate that Emu2 can serve as a base model and general-purpose interface for a wide range of multimodal tasks. Code and models are publicly available to facilitate future research.
Large multimodal models demonstrate remarkable generalist ability to perform diverse multimodal tasks in a zero-shot manner. Large-scale web-based image-text pairs contribute fundamentally to this success, but suffer from excessive noise. Recent studies use alternative captions synthesized by captioning models and have achieved notable benchmark performance. However, our experiments reveal significant Scalability Deficiency and World Knowledge Loss issues in models trained with synthetic captions, which have been largely obscured by their initial benchmark success. Upon closer examination, we identify the root cause as the overly-simplified language structure and lack of knowledge details in existing synthetic captions. To provide higher-quality and more scalable multimodal pretraining data, we propose CapsFusion, an advanced framework that leverages large language models to consolidate and refine information from both web-based image-text pairs and synthetic captions. Extensive experiments show that CapsFusion captions exhibit remarkable all-round superiority over existing captions in terms of model performance (e.g., 18.8 and 18.3 improvements in CIDEr score on COCO and NoCaps), sample efficiency (requiring 11-16 times less computation than baselines), world knowledge depth, and scalability. These effectiveness, efficiency and scalability advantages position CapsFusion as a promising candidate for future scaling of LMM training.
Self-supervised molecular representation learning is critical for molecule-based tasks such as AI-assisted drug discovery. Recent studies consider leveraging both 2D and 3D information for representation learning, with straightforward alignment strategies that treat each modality separately. In this work, we introduce a novel "blend-then-predict" self-supervised learning method (MoleBLEND), which blends atom relations from different modalities into one unified relation matrix for encoding, then recovers modality-specific information for both 2D and 3D structures. By treating atom relationships as anchors, seemingly dissimilar 2D and 3D manifolds are aligned and integrated at fine-grained relation-level organically. Extensive experiments show that MoleBLEND achieves state-of-the-art performance across major 2D/3D benchmarks. We further provide theoretical insights from the perspective of mutual-information maximization, demonstrating that our method unifies contrastive, generative (inter-modal prediction) and mask-then-predict (intra-modal prediction) objectives into a single cohesive blend-then-predict framework.
We present Emu, a Transformer-based multimodal foundation model, which can seamlessly generate images and texts in multimodal context. This omnivore model can take in any single-modality or multimodal data input indiscriminately (e.g., interleaved image, text and video) through a one-model-for-all autoregressive training process. First, visual signals are encoded into embeddings, and together with text tokens form an interleaved input sequence. Emu is then end-to-end trained with a unified objective of classifying the next text token or regressing the next visual embedding in the multimodal sequence. This versatile multimodality empowers the exploration of diverse pretraining data sources at scale, such as videos with interleaved frames and text, webpages with interleaved images and text, as well as web-scale image-text pairs and video-text pairs. Emu can serve as a generalist multimodal interface for both image-to-text and text-to-image tasks, and supports in-context image and text generation. Across a broad range of zero-shot/few-shot tasks including image captioning, visual question answering, video question answering and text-to-image generation, Emu demonstrates superb performance compared to state-of-the-art large multimodal models. Extended capabilities such as multimodal assistants via instruction tuning are also demonstrated with impressive performance.
With the increasing amount of multimedia data on modern mobile systems and IoT infrastructures, harnessing these rich multimodal data without breaching user privacy becomes a critical issue. Federated learning (FL) serves as a privacy-conscious alternative to centralized machine learning. However, existing FL methods extended to multimodal data all rely on model aggregation on single modality level, which restrains the server and clients to have identical model architecture for each modality. This limits the global model in terms of both model complexity and data capacity, not to mention task diversity. In this work, we propose Contrastive Representation Ensemble and Aggregation for Multimodal FL (CreamFL), a multimodal federated learning framework that enables training larger server models from clients with heterogeneous model architectures and data modalities, while only communicating knowledge on public dataset. To achieve better multimodal representation fusion, we design a global-local cross-modal ensemble strategy to aggregate client representations. To mitigate local model drift caused by two unprecedented heterogeneous factors stemming from multimodal discrepancy (modality gap and task gap), we further propose two inter-modal and intra-modal contrasts to regularize local training, which complements information of the absent modality for uni-modal clients and regularizes local clients to head towards global consensus. Thorough evaluations and ablation studies on image-text retrieval and visual question answering tasks showcase the superiority of CreamFL over state-of-the-art FL methods and its practical value.
Contrastive learning (CL) has recently been applied to adversarial learning tasks. Such practice considers adversarial samples as additional positive views of an instance, and by maximizing their agreements with each other, yields better adversarial robustness. However, this mechanism can be potentially flawed, since adversarial perturbations may cause instance-level identity confusion, which can impede CL performance by pulling together different instances with separate identities. To address this issue, we propose to treat adversarial samples unequally when contrasted, with an asymmetric InfoNCE objective ($A-InfoNCE$) that allows discriminating considerations of adversarial samples. Specifically, adversaries are viewed as inferior positives that induce weaker learning signals, or as hard negatives exhibiting higher contrast to other negative samples. In the asymmetric fashion, the adverse impacts of conflicting objectives between CL and adversarial learning can be effectively mitigated. Experiments show that our approach consistently outperforms existing Adversarial CL methods across different finetuning schemes without additional computational cost. The proposed A-InfoNCE is also a generic form that can be readily extended to other CL methods. Code is available at https://github.com/yqy2001/A-InfoNCE.