Multi-choice questions (MCQs) serve as a common yet important task format in the research of large language models (LLMs). Our work shows that LLMs exhibit an inherent "selection bias" in MCQs, which refers to LLMs' preferences to select options located at specific positions (like "Option C"). This bias is prevalent across various LLMs, making their performance vulnerable to option position changes in MCQs. We identify that one primary cause resulting in selection bias is option numbering, i.e., the ID symbols A/B/C/D associated with the options. To mitigate selection bias, we propose a new method called PriDe. PriDe first decomposes the observed model prediction distribution into an intrinsic prediction over option contents and a prior distribution over option IDs. It then estimates the prior by permutating option contents on a small number of test samples, which is used to debias the subsequent test samples. We demonstrate that, as a label-free, inference-time method, PriDe achieves a more effective and computation-efficient debiasing than strong baselines. We further show that the priors estimated by PriDe generalize well across different domains, highlighting its practical potential in broader scenarios.
Local feature matching remains a challenging task, primarily due to difficulties in matching sparse keypoints and low-texture regions. The key to solving this problem lies in effectively and accurately integrating global and local information. To achieve this goal, we introduce an innovative local feature matching method called TKwinFormer. Our approach employs a multi-stage matching strategy to optimize the efficiency of information interaction. Furthermore, we propose a novel attention mechanism called Top K Window Attention, which facilitates global information interaction through window tokens prior to patch-level matching, resulting in improved matching accuracy. Additionally, we design an attention block to enhance attention between channels. Experimental results demonstrate that TKwinFormer outperforms state-of-the-art methods on various benchmarks. Code is available at: https://github.com/LiaoYun0x0/TKwinFormer.
This paper presents IP-SLT, a simple yet effective framework for sign language translation (SLT). Our IP-SLT adopts a recurrent structure and enhances the semantic representation (prototype) of the input sign language video via an iterative refinement manner. Our idea mimics the behavior of human reading, where a sentence can be digested repeatedly, till reaching accurate understanding. Technically, IP-SLT consists of feature extraction, prototype initialization, and iterative prototype refinement. The initialization module generates the initial prototype based on the visual feature extracted by the feature extraction module. Then, the iterative refinement module leverages the cross-attention mechanism to polish the previous prototype by aggregating it with the original video feature. Through repeated refinement, the prototype finally converges to a more stable and accurate state, leading to a fluent and appropriate translation. In addition, to leverage the sequential dependence of prototypes, we further propose an iterative distillation loss to compress the knowledge of the final iteration into previous ones. As the autoregressive decoding process is executed only once in inference, our IP-SLT is ready to improve various SLT systems with acceptable overhead. Extensive experiments are conducted on public benchmarks to demonstrate the effectiveness of the IP-SLT.
In Chinese building codes, it is required that residential buildings receive a minimum number of hours of natural, direct sunlight on a specified winter day, which represents the worst sunlight condition in a year. This requirement is a prerequisite for obtaining a building permit during the conceptual design of a residential project. Thus, officially sanctioned software is usually used to assess the sunlight performance of buildings. These software programs predict sunlight hours based on repeated shading calculations, which is time-consuming. This paper proposed a multilayer perceptron-based method, a one-stage prediction approach, which outputs a shading time interval caused by the inputted cuboid-form building. The sunlight hours of a site can be obtained by calculating the union of the sunlight time intervals (complement of shading time interval) of all the buildings. Three numerical experiments, i.e., horizontal level and slope analysis, and simulation-based optimization are carried out; the results show that the method reduces the computation time to 1/84~1/50 with 96.5%~98% accuracies. A residential neighborhood layout planning plug-in for Rhino 7/Grasshopper is also developed based on the proposed model. This paper indicates that deep learning techniques can be adopted to accelerate sunlight hour simulations at the conceptual design phase.
As large language models (LLMs) generate texts with increasing fluency and realism, there is a growing need to identify the source of texts to prevent the abuse of LLMs. Text watermarking techniques have proven reliable in distinguishing whether a text is generated by LLMs by injecting hidden patterns into the generated texts. However, we argue that existing watermarking methods for LLMs are encoding-inefficient (only contain one bit of information - whether it is generated from an LLM or not) and cannot flexibly meet the diverse information encoding needs (such as encoding model version, generation time, user id, etc.) in different LLMs application scenarios. In this work, we conduct the first systematic study on the topic of Codable Text Watermarking for LLMs (CTWL) that allows text watermarks to carry more customizable information. First of all, we study the taxonomy of LLM watermarking technology and give a mathematical formulation for CTWL. Additionally, we provide a comprehensive evaluation system for CTWL: (1) watermarking success rate, (2) robustness against various corruptions, (3) coding rate of payload information, (4) encoding and decoding efficiency, (5) impacts on the quality of the generated text. To meet the requirements of these non-Pareto-improving metrics, we devise a CTWL method named Balance-Marking, based on the motivation of ensuring that available and unavailable vocabularies for encoding information have approximately equivalent probabilities. Compared to the random vocabulary partitioning extended from the existing work, a probability-balanced vocabulary partition can significantly improve the quality of the generated text. Extensive experimental results have shown that our method outperforms a direct baseline under comprehensive evaluation.
Self-supervised molecular representation learning is critical for molecule-based tasks such as AI-assisted drug discovery. Recent studies consider leveraging both 2D and 3D information for representation learning, with straightforward alignment strategies that treat each modality separately. In this work, we introduce a novel "blend-then-predict" self-supervised learning method (MoleBLEND), which blends atom relations from different modalities into one unified relation matrix for encoding, then recovers modality-specific information for both 2D and 3D structures. By treating atom relationships as anchors, seemingly dissimilar 2D and 3D manifolds are aligned and integrated at fine-grained relation-level organically. Extensive experiments show that MoleBLEND achieves state-of-the-art performance across major 2D/3D benchmarks. We further provide theoretical insights from the perspective of mutual-information maximization, demonstrating that our method unifies contrastive, generative (inter-modal prediction) and mask-then-predict (intra-modal prediction) objectives into a single cohesive blend-then-predict framework.
We evaluate existing foundation models video understanding capabilities using a carefully designed experiment protocol consisting of three hallmark tasks (action recognition, temporal localization, and spatiotemporal localization), eight datasets well received by the community, and four adaptation methods tailoring a foundation model (FM) for a downstream task. Moreover, we propose a scalar VideoGLUE score (VGS) to measure an FMs efficacy and efficiency when adapting to general video understanding tasks. Our main findings are as follows. First, task-specialized models significantly outperform the six FMs studied in this work, in sharp contrast to what FMs have achieved in natural language and image understanding. Second,video-native FMs, whose pretraining data contains the video modality, are generally better than image-native FMs in classifying motion-rich videos, localizing actions in time, and understanding a video of more than one action. Third, the video-native FMs can perform well on video tasks under light adaptations to downstream tasks(e.g., freezing the FM backbones), while image-native FMs win in full end-to-end finetuning. The first two observations reveal the need and tremendous opportunities to conduct research on video-focused FMs, and the last confirms that both tasks and adaptation methods matter when it comes to the evaluation of FMs.
In classification problems, the datasets are usually imbalanced, noisy or complex. Most sampling algorithms only make some improvements to the linear sampling mechanism of the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE). Nevertheless, linear oversampling has several unavoidable drawbacks. Linear oversampling is susceptible to overfitting, and the synthetic samples lack diversity and rarely account for the original distribution characteristics. An informed nonlinear oversampling framework with the granular ball (INGB) as a new direction of oversampling is proposed in this paper. It uses granular balls to simulate the spatial distribution characteristics of datasets, and informed entropy is utilized to further optimize the granular-ball space. Then, nonlinear oversampling is performed by following high-dimensional sparsity and the isotropic Gaussian distribution. Furthermore, INGB has good compatibility. Not only can it be combined with most SMOTE-based sampling algorithms to improve their performance, but it can also be easily extended to noisy imbalanced multi-classification problems. The mathematical model and theoretical proof of INGB are given in this work. Extensive experiments demonstrate that INGB outperforms the traditional linear sampling frameworks and algorithms in oversampling on complex datasets.
Large-scale Pretrained Language Models~(LLMs), such as ChatGPT and GPT4, have shown strong abilities in multilingual translations, without being explicitly trained on parallel corpora. It is interesting how the LLMs obtain their ability to carry out translation instructions for different languages. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis by finetuning a multilingual pretrained language model, XGLM-7B, to perform multilingual translation following given instructions. Firstly, we show that the multilingual LLMs have stronger translation abilities than previously demonstrated. For a certain language pair, the performance depends on both the language families and the amount of data used in the pretraining phase. Secondly, we find that LLMs' ability to carry out translation instructions relies on the understanding of translation instruction and the alignment among different languages. With proper enhancement, LLMs could perform the translation task well even for those language pairs unseen during the instruction tuning phase.