Scaling up contrastive language-image pretraining (CLIP) is critical for empowering both vision and multimodal models. We present EVA-CLIP-18B, the largest and most powerful open-source CLIP model to date, with 18-billion parameters. With only 6-billion training samples seen, EVA-CLIP-18B achieves an exceptional 80.7% zero-shot top-1 accuracy averaged across 27 widely recognized image classification benchmarks, outperforming its forerunner EVA-CLIP (5-billion parameters) and other open-source CLIP models by a large margin. Remarkably, we observe a consistent performance improvement with the model size scaling of EVA-CLIP, despite maintaining a constant training dataset of 2-billion image-text pairs from LAION-2B and COYO-700M. This dataset is openly available and much smaller than the in-house datasets (e.g., DFN-5B, WebLI-10B) employed in other state-of-the-art CLIP models. EVA-CLIP-18B demonstrates the potential of EVA-style weak-to-strong visual model scaling. With our model weights made publicly available, we hope to facilitate future research in vision and multimodal foundation models.
The human ability to easily solve multimodal tasks in context (i.e., with only a few demonstrations or simple instructions), is what current multimodal systems have largely struggled to imitate. In this work, we demonstrate that the task-agnostic in-context learning capabilities of large multimodal models can be significantly enhanced by effective scaling-up. We introduce Emu2, a generative multimodal model with 37 billion parameters, trained on large-scale multimodal sequences with a unified autoregressive objective. Emu2 exhibits strong multimodal in-context learning abilities, even emerging to solve tasks that require on-the-fly reasoning, such as visual prompting and object-grounded generation. The model sets a new record on multiple multimodal understanding tasks in few-shot settings. When instruction-tuned to follow specific instructions, Emu2 further achieves new state-of-the-art on challenging tasks such as question answering benchmarks for large multimodal models and open-ended subject-driven generation. These achievements demonstrate that Emu2 can serve as a base model and general-purpose interface for a wide range of multimodal tasks. Code and models are publicly available to facilitate future research.
Large multimodal models demonstrate remarkable generalist ability to perform diverse multimodal tasks in a zero-shot manner. Large-scale web-based image-text pairs contribute fundamentally to this success, but suffer from excessive noise. Recent studies use alternative captions synthesized by captioning models and have achieved notable benchmark performance. However, our experiments reveal significant Scalability Deficiency and World Knowledge Loss issues in models trained with synthetic captions, which have been largely obscured by their initial benchmark success. Upon closer examination, we identify the root cause as the overly-simplified language structure and lack of knowledge details in existing synthetic captions. To provide higher-quality and more scalable multimodal pretraining data, we propose CapsFusion, an advanced framework that leverages large language models to consolidate and refine information from both web-based image-text pairs and synthetic captions. Extensive experiments show that CapsFusion captions exhibit remarkable all-round superiority over existing captions in terms of model performance (e.g., 18.8 and 18.3 improvements in CIDEr score on COCO and NoCaps), sample efficiency (requiring 11-16 times less computation than baselines), world knowledge depth, and scalability. These effectiveness, efficiency and scalability advantages position CapsFusion as a promising candidate for future scaling of LMM training.
We present Emu, a Transformer-based multimodal foundation model, which can seamlessly generate images and texts in multimodal context. This omnivore model can take in any single-modality or multimodal data input indiscriminately (e.g., interleaved image, text and video) through a one-model-for-all autoregressive training process. First, visual signals are encoded into embeddings, and together with text tokens form an interleaved input sequence. Emu is then end-to-end trained with a unified objective of classifying the next text token or regressing the next visual embedding in the multimodal sequence. This versatile multimodality empowers the exploration of diverse pretraining data sources at scale, such as videos with interleaved frames and text, webpages with interleaved images and text, as well as web-scale image-text pairs and video-text pairs. Emu can serve as a generalist multimodal interface for both image-to-text and text-to-image tasks, and supports in-context image and text generation. Across a broad range of zero-shot/few-shot tasks including image captioning, visual question answering, video question answering and text-to-image generation, Emu demonstrates superb performance compared to state-of-the-art large multimodal models. Extended capabilities such as multimodal assistants via instruction tuning are also demonstrated with impressive performance.
Recently, perception task based on Bird's-Eye View (BEV) representation has drawn more and more attention, and BEV representation is promising as the foundation for next-generation Autonomous Vehicle (AV) perception. However, most existing BEV solutions either require considerable resources to execute on-vehicle inference or suffer from modest performance. This paper proposes a simple yet effective framework, termed Fast-BEV , which is capable of performing faster BEV perception on the on-vehicle chips. Towards this goal, we first empirically find that the BEV representation can be sufficiently powerful without expensive transformer based transformation nor depth representation. Our Fast-BEV consists of five parts, We novelly propose (1) a lightweight deployment-friendly view transformation which fast transfers 2D image feature to 3D voxel space, (2) an multi-scale image encoder which leverages multi-scale information for better performance, (3) an efficient BEV encoder which is particularly designed to speed up on-vehicle inference. We further introduce (4) a strong data augmentation strategy for both image and BEV space to avoid over-fitting, (5) a multi-frame feature fusion mechanism to leverage the temporal information. Through experiments, on 2080Ti platform, our R50 model can run 52.6 FPS with 47.3% NDS on the nuScenes validation set, exceeding the 41.3 FPS and 47.5% NDS of the BEVDepth-R50 model and 30.2 FPS and 45.7% NDS of the BEVDet4D-R50 model. Our largest model (R101@900x1600) establishes a competitive 53.5% NDS on the nuScenes validation set. We further develop a benchmark with considerable accuracy and efficiency on current popular on-vehicle chips. The code is released at: https://github.com/Sense-GVT/Fast-BEV.
* submitted to TPAMI. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with
Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining (CLIP) has emerged as a novel paradigm to learn visual models from language supervision. While researchers continue to push the frontier of CLIP, reproducing these works remains challenging. This is because researchers do not choose consistent training recipes and even use different data, hampering the fair comparison between different methods. In this work, we propose CLIP-benchmark, a first attempt to evaluate, analyze, and benchmark CLIP and its variants. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of three key factors: data, supervision, and model architecture. We find considerable intuitive or counter-intuitive insights: (1). Data quality has a significant impact on performance. (2). Certain supervision has different effects for Convolutional Networks (ConvNets) and Vision Transformers (ViT). Applying more proper supervision can effectively improve the performance of CLIP. (3). Curtailing the text encoder reduces the training cost but not much affect the final performance. Moreover, we further combine DeCLIP with FILIP, bringing us the strongest variant DeFILIP. The CLIP-benchmark would be released at: https://github.com/Sense-GVT/DeCLIP for future CLIP research.
Recently, large-scale Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) has attracted unprecedented attention for its impressive zero-shot recognition ability and excellent transferability to downstream tasks. However, CLIP is quite data-hungry and requires 400M image-text pairs for pre-training, thereby restricting its adoption. This work proposes a novel training paradigm, Data efficient CLIP (DeCLIP), to alleviate this limitation. We demonstrate that by carefully utilizing the widespread supervision among the image-text pairs, our De-CLIP can learn generic visual features more efficiently. Instead of using the single image-text contrastive supervision, we fully exploit data potential through the use of (1) self-supervision within each modality; (2) multi-view supervision across modalities; (3) nearest-neighbor supervision from other similar pairs. Benefiting from intrinsic supervision, our DeCLIP-ResNet50 can achieve 60.4% zero-shot top1 accuracy on ImageNet, which is 0.8% above the CLIP-ResNet50 while using 7.1 x fewer data. Our DeCLIP-ResNet50 outperforms its counterpart in 8 out of 11 visual datasets when transferred to downstream tasks. Moreover, Scaling up the model and computing also works well in our framework.Our code, dataset and models are released at: https://github.com/Sense-GVT/DeCLIP